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This set of Soil Mechanics Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Seepage Analysis – Head, Gradient and Potential”.

1. When water flows through a saturated soil mass, piezometric head is the sum of velocity head and position head.
a) True
b) False

2. A piezometric surface is the line joining ________
a) water level in piezometers
b) soil stratum
c) equal voids ratio in soil mass
d) equal velocity of flow

Explanation: A piezometric surface is the surface formed by the line joining water level in piezometers. The piezometric head is equal to the height of water rise in piezometric tube.

3. The piezometric head is also called ________

Explanation: A piezometric head is a measurement of liquid pressure above a vertical datum. Hence piezometric head is also known as pressure head.
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4. The difference between the elevation of water surfaces in piezometers is _______
b) velocity
d) depth or length of sample

Explanation: Head loss refers to the measurement of energy dissipated in a system due to friction. This energy dissipation is measured by the difference in the elevation of water surfaces in piezometers.

5. The position head is also called ________

Explanation: The position or elevation head is the elevation of a point with respect to any arbitrary datum. The elevation head can be taken at any point with respect to a datum.
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6. The elevation head is taken as negative if the point is situated above the datum and positive if below the datum.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The datum for elevation head is considered as abscissa of a graph for calculation purpose, where the region above it positive and the region below it is negative.

7. The total head at any point may be regarded as _________ measure with respect to the datum.
a) potential energy
b) potential energy per unit weight of water
c) unit weight of water
d) volume of water

8. Total head is the sum of ________

9. Flow occurs between two points only if _______
a) there is difference in total heads
b) there is no difference in total heads
c) the total heads are equal
d) the total heads are equal to zero

Explanation: Flow occurs between two points when there is a difference in elevation of the points which implies to the difference in total heads or potential energies. When there is no difference in total heads, no flow occurs.

10. The hydraulic gradient is equal to the __________
c) hydraulic head per unit distance

Explanation: The hydraulic gradient $$i=\frac{h}{L},$$
L=distance.

11. The hydraulic potential at any point is given by _________
a) h=hw±Z
b) h=hw*Z
c) h=hw/Z
d) h=Z/hw

Explanation: The hydraulic head is also designated as hydraulic potential. The hydraulic head is the sum of pressure head hw and position head Z.

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