Biomedical Instrumentation Questions and Answers – Measurement of Temperature

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This set of Biomedical Instrumentation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Measurement of Temperature”.

1. Which of the following is the technique of analyzing the electrical activity of the heart by obtaining ECG’s?
a) VCG
b) EEG
c) EMG
d) PCG
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Vectorcardiography is the technique of analyzing the electrical activity of the heart by obtaining ECG’s along three axes at right angles to one another and displaying any two of these ECGs as a vector display on an X-Y oscilloscope.
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2. Vectorcardiogram displays the electrical events in __________ perpendicular axes.
a) one
b) two
c) three
d) four
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: In contrast, the electrocardiogram which displays the electrical potential in any one single axis, the vectorcardiogram displays the same electrical events simultaneously in two perpendicular axes.

3. ___________ is a vectorial representation of the distribution of electric potentials generated by heart.
a) EEG
b) ECG
c) PCG
d) VCG
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In contrast, the electrocardiogram which displays the electrical potential in any one single axis, the vectorcardiogram displays the same electrical events simultaneously in two perpendicular axes. This gives a vectorial representation of the distribution of electrical potentials generated by the heart and produces loop type patterns on the CRT screen.
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4. How many loops each vectorcardiogram exhibits?
a) one
b) two
c) three
d) four
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The major information that it provides is the direction of depolarization and repolarization of the atria and the ventricles. Each vectorcardiogram exhibits three loops, showing the vector orientation of the P wave, the QRSaxis and the T wave.

5. Which of the following instrument is used for recording the sounds connected with the pumping action of the heart?
a) ECG
b) VCG
c) PCG
d) EEG
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The phonocardiograph is an instrument used for recording the sounds connected with the pumping action of the heart. These sounds provide an indication of the heart rate and its rhythmicity. They also give useful information regarding the effectiveness of blood pumping and valve action.
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6. Which instrument is used for clinical detection of heart sounds?
a) Stethoscope
b) Endoscope
c) Anoscope
d) Proctoscope
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Heart sounds are diagnostically useful. Sounds produced by healthy hearts are remarkably identical and abnormal sounds always corelate to specific physical abnormalities. From the beginning till today, the principal instrument used for the clinical detection of heart sounds is the acoustical stethoscope.

7. Who provides a recording of waveforms of heart sounds?
a) Electrocardiograph
b) Vectorcardiograph
c) Phonocardiograph
d) Electromyograph
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The phonocardiographs provide a recording of the waveforms of the heart sounds. These waveforms are diagnostically more important and revealing than the sounds themselves.
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8. What is the frequency range of sound generated from the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valve?
a) 0 to 30 Hz
b) 30 to 100 Hz
c) 100 to 1000 Hz
d) above 1000 Hz
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The closure of the mitral and tricuspid valve contributes largely to the first sound. The frequencies of these sounds are generally in the range of 30 to 100 Hz and the duration is between 50 to 100 ms.

9. Which of the following microphone is used for recording phonocardiograms?
a) Contact Microphone
b) Shotgun Microphone
c) Handheld Microphone
d) Lapel Microphone
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Two types of microphones are commonly in use for recording phonocardiograms. They are the contact microphone and the air coupled microphone. They are further categorized into crystal type or dynamic type based on their principle of operation.
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10. What is the frequency range of sound produced at the closure of aortic and pulmonic valves?
a) less than 0 Hz
b) 0 to 30 Hz
c) 30 to 100 Hz
d) above 100 Hz
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The second sound is higher in pitch than the first, with frequencies above 100 Hz and the duration between 25 to 50 ms. This sound is produced by the slight back flow of blood into the heart before the valves close and then by the closure of the valves in the arteries leading out of the ventricles. This means that it occurs at the closure of aortic and the pulmonic valves.

11. What is the thickness of the new acoustic sensor?
a) 0.25 mm
b) 0.5 mm
c) 1.0 mm
d) 1.5 mm
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: A new acoustic sensor, which enhances the audibility of heart sounds and enables recording of quantitative acoustic spectral data is described by Kassal et al, 1994. This device is a polymer based adherent differential-output sensor, which is only 1.0 mm thick.

12. Who described the new acoustic sensor?
a) Golden et al
b) Rijn et al
c) Levkov et al
d) Kassal et al
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: A new acoustic sensor, which enhances the audibility of heart sounds and enables recording of quantitative acoustic spectral data is described by Kassal et al, 1994. This device is a polymer based adherent differential-output sensor, which is only 1.0 mm thick.

13. Acoustic sensor principal sensing component is made up of which polymer?
a) PEO(Poly-ethylene oxide)
b) PET(Poly-ethylene tetraphthalate)
c) PVDF(Poly-vinylidene fluoride)
d) PS(Poly-styrene)
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Its principle sensing components is PVDF (poly-vinylidene fluoride), which is a piezo-electric polymer. It produces charges of equal magnitude and opposite polarity on opposite surfaces when a mechanical strain is imposed on the material.

14. What is the frequency range of amplifier used for a phonocardiograph?
a) less than 0 Hz
b) 0 to 20 Hz
c) 20 to 2000 Hz
d) above 2000 Hz
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The amplifier used for a phonocardiograph has wide bandwidth with a frequency range of about 20 to 2000 Hz. Filters permit selection of suitable frequency bands, so that particular heart sound frequencies can be recorded.

15. PCG amplifiers usually have gain compensation circuits to increase the amplification of high frequency signals, which are usually of low intensity.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Yes, PCG amplifiers usually have gain compensation circuits to increase the amplification of high frequency signals, which are usually of low intensity. The frequencies at the higher end of the range are of particular significance in research applications.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter