Biomedical Instrumentation Questions and Answers – Biotelemetry

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This set of Biomedical Instrumentation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Biotelemetry”.

1. Leucocytes are in the shape of ________
a) sphere
b) cube
c) hollow
d) cuboid
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Leucocytes are in the shape of a sphere. Leucocytes have a nucleus. They live for seven to fourteen days and there is a rapid turn over, with constant destruction and replacement. There are normally 5000–10,000 white cells per cubic mm of blood but their number varies during the day.
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2. What should be the frequency response of the amplifiers that are used for the amplification purpose of the input signal in medical devices?
a) high frequency response
b) low frequency response
c) frequency response has no role to play in it
d) average frequency response
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The response should be down to less than one hertz which is a very frequent requirement. The bioelectric signals in medical science contain components of extremely low frequency. Thus the amplifiers must also have a low frequency response.

3. Leucocytes are not responsible for the formation of the defence mechanism of the body that fights against infection.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: It is False. Leucocytes form the defence mechanism of the body against infection. The number and proportion of these types of leucocytes may vary widely in response to various disease conditions. They are of two main types: the neutrophils and the lymphocytes. Neutrophils ingest bacteria and lymphocytes are concerned with immunological response.
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4. To achieve the ______________ required for medical applications, the amplifier must have large values of coupling capacitance.
a) random frequency response
b) high frequency response
c) average frequency response
d) low frequency response
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In all RC-coupled amplifiers, low frequency response is limited by the reluctance of the coupling capacitors. The response should be down to less than one hertz which is a very frequent requirement. To achieve the low frequency response required for medical applications, the amplifier must have large values of coupling capacitance.

5. Neutrophils are bigger than the red cells.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: It is True. Neutrophils are nearly twice as big as the red cells.Lymphocytes are of the same size as the red cells but contain a large density staining nucleus and no granules. Neutrophils contain both a nucleus divided into several lobes and granules in their protoplasm.
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6. High pass filter amplifies frequency _____________
a) above certain value
b) below certain value
c) above and below certain value
d) at certain value
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: High pass filter amplifies signal above a certain frequency. Band pass filter amplifies frequencies with in a certain band. Band stop filter amplifies all the frequencies except those in a certain band. Low pass filter amplifies signals below a certain frequency.

7. Mean Platelet Volume is the ratio of the ___________ and is expressed in femolitres.
a) integrated platelet volume to the platelet count
b) integrated platelet volume to the WBC count
c) integrated RBC volume to the platelet count
d) integrated platelet volume to the RBC count
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is the ratio of the integrated platelet volume to the platelet count and is expressed in femolitres. Platelet Distribution Width is related to the size range covered by those platelets lying between the sixteenth and eighty fourth percentile. Red Cell Distribution Width is a numerical expression of the width of the size distribution of red cells.
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8. Unit of Mean Platelet Volume is expressed in?
a) millilitres
b) femolitres
c) picolitres
d) decilitres
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Unit of Mean Platelet Volume is expressed in femolitres. 1f/l = 10–15 . 1 litre of blood contains 0.45 litres of red cells. Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is the ratio of the integrated platelet volume to the platelet count and is expressed in femolitres.

9. Low pass filter amplifies signals below a certain frequency.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: It is true. Low pass filter amplifies signals below a certain frequency. Band stop filter amplifies all the frequencies except those in a certain band. High pass filter amplifies signal above a certain frequency. Band pass filter amplifies frequencies within a certain band.
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10. _______ is the percentage of the total specimen volume occupied by the platelets.
a) Mean Platelet Volume
b) Plateletcrit
c) Red Cell Distribution Width
d) Platelet Distribution Width
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Plateletcrit is the percentage of the total specimen volume occupied by the platelets. Red Cell Distribution Width is a numerical expression of the width of the size distribution of red cells. Mean Platelet Volume is the ratio of the integrated platelet volume to the platelet count and is expressed in femolitres.

11. Modern instrument use ________ for intravascular oximetry?
a) photodiode
b) red and infrared LED’s
c) optical fibre
d) phototransistor
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: For intravascular oximetry, modern instruments make use of optical fibres to guide the light signal inside the vessel and the reflected light from the red blood cells back to the light detector.

12. Optical fiber sensors are immune to electromagnetic disturbances.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: It is True. Optical fiber sensors are electrically passive and consequently immune to electromagnetic disturbances. They can be miniaturized and are most suitable for telemetry applications. They are geometrically flexible and corrosion resistant.

13. Currently available oximeters utilize __________ wavelengths.
a) Equal to 2
b) Cannot be determined
c) Less than 2
d) More than 2
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Currently available fiber-optic oximeters utilize more than two wavelengths to adjust for haematocrit variation. For estimating SO2, usually the reflectance at two wavelengths, one in the red and the other in the near infrared regions, are used.

14. Mix venous saturation is measured by __________
a) Ear Oximeter
b) Intravascular Oximeter
c) Skin Reflectance Oximeter
d) Pulse Oximeter
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Mixed venous saturation varies in reflecting the changes of oxygen saturation, cardiac output, haematocrit or haemoglobin content and oxygen consumption. Intravasacular oximeters are normally used to measure mixed venous saturation, from which the status of the circulatory system can be deduced.

15. Which of the following is correct expression for RDW index?
a) [(20th – 80th) Percentile Volume / (20th – 80th) Percentile Volume] X 100 X K
b) [(20th – 80th) Percentile Volume / (20th + 80th) Percentile Volume] X 100 X K
c) [(20th + 80th) Percentile Volume / (20th – 80th) Percentile Volume] X 100 X K
d) [(20th + 80th) Percentile Volume / (20th + 80th) Percentile Volume] X 100 X K
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The total erythrocyte count is scanned by a continuously variable thresholding circuit. The RDW index is expressed by the following equation [(20th – 80th) Percentile Volume / (20th + 80th) Percentile Volume ] X 100 X K. It is a numerical expression of the width of the size distribution of red cells. It is derived by analog computation. The upper threshold is moved progressively lower from a level equivalent to 360 femolitres until 20 per cent of all erythrocytes present have a size above a certain value.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter