Biomedical Instrumentation Questions and Answers – Electromyograph (EMG)

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This set of Biomedical Instrumentation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Electromyograph (EMG)”.

1. Which of the following instrument is used to measure the oxygen saturation level of blood in localized areas of oxygen?
a) Ear Oximeter
b) Pulse Oximeter
c) Skin reflectance Oximeter
d) Intravascular Oximeter
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: For the measurement of oxygen saturation level of blood in localized areas of oxygen deprived tissues on the limbs, head and torso, a skin reflectance oximeter can be employed.
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2. Skin Reflectance oximeter depends on monitoring backscattered lights in how many wavelengths?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The instrument basically depends on monitoring backscattered light from living tissue in two wavelengths. The backscattered light data is then used for the in vivo determination of the blood’s relative oxygen saturation.

3. Who brought out the difficulties in the extraction of useful information from backscattered light intensity from human tissue?
a) Cohen and Wadsworth
b) Cohen and Logini
c) Cohen
d) Logini
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Cohen and Wadsworth (1972) bring out the difficulties in the extraction of useful information from backscattered light intensity from human tissue. There are vast variations of tissue construction and optical properties among various subjects and in different locations on the same subject.
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4. Who considered “Human tissues are composed of parallel semi-infinite layers of homogenous materials”.
a) Cohen and Wadsworth
b) Cohen and Logini
c) Cohen
d) Wadsworth
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Cohen and Longini (1971) suggested a theoretical solution to some of these problems. They considered human tissues to be composed of parallel semi-infinite layers of homogeneous materials.

5. Who has poorer signal-to-noise ratio?
a) Transmission Pulse Oximeter
b) Reflection Pulse Oximeter
c) Ear Oximeter
d) Pulse Oximeter
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: However, in comparison to transmission, the reflection pulse oximeter has poorer signal-to noiseratio. Mendelson et al (1988) utilized multiple photodiodes around the light source to enhance signal level.
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6. What was utilized around the light source to enhance the signal?
a) Photodiodes
b) Optical Shied
c) Ceramic Substrate
d) Red and infrared LED’s
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: However, in comparison to transmission, the reflection pulse oximeter has poorer signal-to noise ratio. Mendelson et al (1988) utilized multiple photodiodes around the light source to enhance signal level.

7. What are used as light source in Skin Reflectance Oximeter?
a) Photodiode
b) Red and infrared LED’s
c) Flashtube
d) Arc Lamp
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: A pair of red and infrared light emitting diodes are used for the light source, with peak emission wavelengths of 665 nm (red) and 935 nm (infrared). The reflected light from the skin at these two wavelengths is detected by a silicon diode.
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8. The reflected light from the skin at wavelengths of 665nm(red) and 935nm(infrared) is detected by ______________
a) Photo diode
b) Laser diode
c) Silicon diode
d) Zener diode
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: A pair of red and infrared light emitting diodes are used for the light source, with peak emission wavelengths of 665 nm (red) and 935 nm (infrared). The reflected light from the skin at these two wavelengths is detected by a silicon diode.

9. The detected signals are processed in the form of photo – plethysmographs to determine ___________
a) SiO2
b) SO2
c) CO2
d) TiO2
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: A pair of red and infrared light emitting diodes is used for the light source, with peak emission wavelengths of 665 nm (red) and 935 nm (infrared). The reflected light from the skin at these two wavelengths is detected by a silicon diode. These detected signals are processed in the form of photo-plethysmographs to determine So2.
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10. What is incorporated in sensor to warm the tissue so as to increase local blood flow?
a) heater
b) heating plate
c) thermostat
d) thermometer
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: A heater was incorporated in the sensor to warm the tissue so as to increase local blood flow. Excellent correlation in comparison with the transmission oximeter has been shown from the calf and thigh.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Biomedical Instrumentation.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter