This set of Biomedical Instrumentation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Monitoring Labour Activity”.
1. Which section of the clinical laboratory deals with determinations of the number and characteristics of the constituents of the blood, particularly the blood cells?
d) Sample collection
Explanation: There are three different areas within the clinical laboratory set up. These are:
• Chemistry section deals with the analysis of blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other fluids to determine the quantity of various important substances they contain. Most of the electronic instruments in the clinical laboratory are available in this section.
• Haematology section deals with the determinations of the number and characteristics of the constituents of the blood, particularly the blood cells.
• Microbiology section in which studies are performed on various body tissues and fluids to determine the presence of pathological micro-organisms.
2. What is the percentage of blood plasma and the blood cells respectively in blood volume?
a) 60, 40
b) 40, 60
c) 70, 30
d) 30, 70
Explanation: The liquid part of the blood—the blood plasma, and the formed elements—the blood cells are analyzed during a chemical examination. The blood plasma accounts for about 60% of the blood volume and the blood cells occupy the other 40%. The plasma is obtained by centrifuging a blood sample.
3. The plasma is a viscous, light yellow liquid, i.e. almost clear in the fasting stage.
Explanation: The plasma is obtained by centrifuging a blood sample. During centrifugation, the heavy blood cells get packed at the bottom of the centrifuge tube and the plasma can thus be separated. The plasma is a viscous, light yellow liquid, i.e. almost clear in the fasting stage.
4. Which of the following method is based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the visible, ultraviolet and infrared ranges?
b) Ultrasonic therapy
Explanation: Spectrophotometry is the most important of all the instrumental methods of analysis in clinical chemistry. This method is based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the visible, ultraviolet and infrared ranges.
5. Which of the following waves have short wave-length?
b) Radio wave
c) Gamma rays
d) IR waves
Explanation: Electromagnetic spectrum ranges from very short wavelengths (including gamma and X-rays) to very long wavelengths (including microwaves and broadcast radio waves). The range of wavelength of gamma rays and X-rays is 10-4 to 10 nm. The range of wavelengths of microwaves and radio-waves is 106 to 109 nm.
6. The method based on the absorption of radiation of a substance is known as?
a) Absorption photometry
c) Absorption tocometry
d) Absorption spectrophotoscopy
Explanation: Electronic transitions correspond to the ultraviolet and visible regions, vibrational transitions to the near infrared and infrared regions and rotational transitions to the infrared and far-infrared regions. The method based on the absorption of radiation of a substance is known as Absorption Spectroscopy.
7. What is the range of visible light of electromagnetic spectrum?
a) 380 to 780 mm
b) 780 to 1080 nm
c) 380 to 780 nm
d) 380 to 1080 nm
Explanation: The region in the electromagnetic spectrum which is normally used in spectroscopic work is very limited. Visible light represents only a very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and generally covers a range from 380 to 780 nm. The ultraviolet region extends from 185 mm to the visible.
8. The ratio of the radiant power transmitted by a sample to the radiant power incident on the sample is known as ______
c) Optical density
d) Photometric concentration
Explanation: Let us suppose, Po is the incident radiant energy and P is the energy which is transmitted. The ratio of the radiant power transmitted by a sample to the radiant power incident on the sample is known as the transmittance.
Transmittance = P/Po
9. If absorbance is plotted graphically against concentration, the graph is _________
c) Straight line
Explanation: If absorbance is plotted graphically against concentration, a straight line is obtained. A graph derived from the transmittance data will not be a straight line unless transmittance (or percent transmission) is plotted on the log axis of a semi-log paper.
10. Which of the following is not a source of radiant energy?
a) Tungsten-mercury lamp
b) Tungsten lamp
c) Xenon-mercury arc
d) Deuterium discharge lamp
Explanation: Radiant just means energy that can move from one place to another without a medium to carry it. A source of radiant energy, which may be a tungsten lamp, a xenon-mercury arc, hydrogen or deuterium discharge lamp, etc.
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