Biomedical Instrumentation Questions and Answers – Data Compression Techniques

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This set of Biomedical Instrumentation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Data Compression Techniques”.

1. The instrument which carries out a continuous and simultaneous recording of the instantaneous foetal heart rate and labour activity is called ____________
a) Ergometer
b) Cardiotocograph
c) Cardiotocometer
d) Cardiotonometer
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of recording the fetal heartbeat and the uterine contractions during pregnancy. The machine used to perform the monitoring is called a cardiotocograph, more commonly known as an electronic fetal monitor(EFM).
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2. In the cardiotocograph, the sensitivity of _______ of recording chart allows adequate reading of the recorder FHR.
a) 30 bpm / cm
b) 10 bpm / cm
c) 20 bpm / cm
d) 15 bpm / cm
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Normally, an accuracy of measurement of foetal heart rate may be 2-3% for classification for responses. Sensitivity of 20 bpm /cm of the recording chart allows adequate reading of the recorder FHR. Labour activity and FHR traces are usually recorded simultaneously on the same time scale.

3. What is the chart speed in cardiotocograph to provide sufficient resolution of the stimulus-response relationship?
a) 1-2 cm / sec
b) 2-3 cm / min
c) 1-2 cm / min
d) 2-3 cm / sec
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Normally, accuracy of measurement of foetal heart rate may be 2-3% for classification for responses. Sensitivity of 20 bpm /cm of the recording chart allows adequate reading of the recorder FHR. Labour activity and FHR traces are usually recorded simultaneously on the same time scale. Chart speed of 1-2 cm/min is adequate to provide sufficient resolution of the stimulus-response relationship.
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4. Which of the following is not an indirect method of foetal heart rate in cordiotocography monitoring?
a) Foetal ECG with scalp electrode
b) Foetal phonocardiogram
c) Abdominal foetal electrocardiogram
d) Ultrasound techniques
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The following methods are commonly employed in most of the cardiotocographic monitoring during labour: I) Indirect method: Abdominal foetal electrocardiogram, foetal phonocardiogram, ultrasound techniques (narrow beam and wide-angle transducer) II) Direct method: Foetal ECG with scalp electrode (spiral, clip or suction electrode attached to the presenting part of the foetus).

5. Which of the following is a direct technique of uterine contraction in cardiotocographic monitoring?
a) Tocodynamometry
b) Intrauterine pressure measurement
c) Phonocardiometry
d) Ultrasound technique
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The following techniques are commonly used in uterine contraction in most of the cardiotocographic monitoring: I) Indirect method: Tocodynamometry (using tocotonometer to sense changes in uterine tension transmitted to abdominal skin surface) II) Direct method: Intrauterine pressure measurement (using a fluid-filled intracervical catheter with strain gauge transducer).
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6. What is the range of instantaneous “beat-to-beat” rate which is displayed on a calibrated linear scale?
a) 200-220 bpm
b) 150-210 bpm
c) 50-200 bpm
d) 50-210 bpm
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Instantaneous “beat-to-beat” rate is displayed on a calibrated linear scale or digitally displayed with a range from 50 to 210 bpm. A two channel chart recorder is incorporated in instruments used for monitoring labour activity.

7. One channel records FHR on a calibrated chart in beats per minute while the other channel is used for recording uterine contractions calibrated _______
a) 50-210 mmHg
b) 0-210 mmHg
c) 0-100 mmHg
d) 0-50 mmHg
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: A two channel chart recorder is incorporated in instruments used for monitoring labour activity. One channel records FHR on a calibrated chart in beats per minute while the other channel is used for recording uterine contractions calibrated 0-100 mmHg. The record is printed on thermo-sensitive z-fold paper using a high-resolution thermal matrix printer.
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8. The intrauterine pressure can reach values of _______ or more during the expulsion period.
a) 150 mmHg
b) 200 mmHg
c) 220 mmHg
d) 250 mmHg
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: During labour, the uterus muscle starts contraction of increasing intensity in a bid to expel out the child. The intrauterine pressure can reach values of 150 mmHg or more during the expulsion period. However, a normal patient in spontaneous active labour will demonstrate uterine contractions occurring at intervals of three to five minutes, with a duration of 30 to 70 s and a peak intensity of 50 to 75 mmHg.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Biomedical Instrumentation.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter