Biomedical Instrumentation Questions and Answers – Measurement of Respiration Rate

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This set of Biomedical Instrumentation Questions and Answers for Entrance exams focuses on “Measurement of Respiration Rate”.

1. Which of the following instrument is used for recording the electrical activity of the muscles?
a) ECG
b) EMG
c) PCG
d) EEG
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Electromyograph is an instrument used for recording the electrical activity of the muscles to determine whether the muscle is contracting or not; or for displaying on the CRO and loudspeaker the action potentials spontaneously present in a muscle or those induced by voluntary contractions as a means of detecting the nature and location of motor unit lesions; or for recording the electrical activity evoked in a muscle by the stimulation of its nerve.
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2. EMG is recorded by using surface electrodes.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: EMG is usually recorded by using surface electrodes because the surface electrodes may be disposable, adhesive types or the ones which can be used repeatedly.

3. Whose measurements are important for myoelectric control of prosthetic devices?
a) VCG
b) ECG
c) EEG
d) EMG
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: EMG measurements are also important for the myoelectric control of prosthetic devices (artificial limbs). This use involves picking up EMG signals from the muscles at the terminated nerve endings of the remaining limb and using the signals to activate a mechanical arm. This is the most demanding requirement from an EMG since it depends on the working of the prosthetic device.
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4. What is used to display EMG waveforms?
a) Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
b) Analog storage Oscilloscope
c) Digital Oscilloscope
d) Dual-beam Oscilloscope
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The Cathode Ray oscilloscope displays EMG waveforms. Electromyograph is an instrument used for recording the electrical activity of the muscles to determine whether the muscle is contracting or not; or for displaying on the CRO.

5. The amplitude of EMG signals depend upon which of the following factor?
a) Respiration
b) Position of electrode
c) Blood Resistivity
d) Ventricular Volume
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The amplitude of the EMG signals depends upon various factors, e.g. the type and placement of electrodes used and the degree of muscular exertions. The needle electrode in contact with a single muscle fibre will pick up spike type voltages whereas a surface electrode picks up many overlapping spikes and therefore produces an average voltage effect.
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6. What is the typical range of EMG signals?
a) 0.025 to 0.050 mV
b) 0.050 to 0.1 mV
c) 0.1 to 0.5 mV
d) 0.5 to 1 mV
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: A typical EMG signal ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 mV. They may contain frequency components extending up to 10 kHz.Such high frequency signals cannot be recorded on the conventional pen recorders and therefore, they are usually displayed on the CRT screen.

7. EMG instrument contain frequency component extending up to ____________ Khz.
a) 1
b) 5
c) 10
d) 15
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: A typical EMG signal ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 mV. They may contain frequency components extending up to 10 kHz.Such high frequency signals cannot be recorded on the conventional pen recorders and therefore, they are usually displayed on the CRT screen.
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8. What is included in the system to facilitate playback and study of EMG sound waveforms at a later convenient time?
a) Preamplifier
b) Oscilloscope
c) Tape Recorder
d) Ground Electrode
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The tape recorder is included in the system to facilitate playback and study of the EMG sound waveforms at a later convenient time. The waveform can also be photographed from the CRT screen by using a synchronized camera.

9. What is necessary for providing a common reference for measurement?
a) active electrode
b) ground electrode
c) tape recorder
d) oscilloscope
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: A ground electrode is necessary for providing a common reference for measurement. These electrodes pick up the potentials produced by the contracting muscle fibres. The signal can then be amplified and displayed on the screen of a cathode ray tube. It is also applied to an audio amplifier connected to a loudspeaker.
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10. Which of the following interpreter can diagnose various muscular disorders by listening to the sounds produced when the muscle potentials are fed to loudspeaker?
a) EEG
b) ECG
c) VCG
d) EMG
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: A trained EMG interpreter can diagnose various muscular disorders by listening to the sounds produced when the muscle potentials are fed to the loudspeaker.

11. What is the diameter of silver electrodes in the amplifier circuit of Johnson et al?
a) 2 mm
b) 4 mm
c) 6 mm
d) 10 mm
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Johnson et al (1977) designed a miniature amplifier circuit fully encapsulated in epoxy resin with two small silver electrodes of 6 mm diameter, exposed flush with the base of the module. The electrode is attached to the skin using adhesive tape.

12. What should be CMRR of preamplifier upto 5 Khz?
a) 10 dB
b) 30 dB
c) 90 dB
d) greater than 90 dB
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The common-mode rejection should be greater than 90 dB up to 5 kHz. A calibrating square wave signal of 100 mV (peak-to-peak) at a frequency of 100 Hz is usually available. The main amplifier has controls for gain adjustment from 5 mV/div to 10 mV/div for selecting the sensitivity most appropriate to the incoming signal from the patient.

13. Modern EMG machines are PC based.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Modern EMG machines are PC based available both in the console as well as laptop models as they provide full colour waveform display, automatic cursors for marking and making measurements and a keyboard for access to convenient and important test controls. The system usually incorporates facilities for recording of the EMG and evoked potentials.

14. EMG instrument is useful for making study of ___________
a) cardiovascular function
b) neuromuscular function
c) nervous function
d) Immune function
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The instrument is useful for making a study of several aspects of neuromuscular function, neuromuscular condition, extent of nerve lesion, reflex responses, etc.

15. Which of the following instrument is used for making a study of reflex responses?
a) EEG
b) ECG
c) VCG
d) EMG
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The instrument is useful for making a study of several aspects of neuromuscular function, neuromuscular condition, the extent of nerve lesion, reflex responses, etc.

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