This set of Biomedical Instrumentation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Digital Recorders”.
1. The removal of waste products during dialysis is ___________
a) inversely proportional to the concentration gradient across the membrane
b) proportional to the concentration gradient across the membrane
c) proportional to the flow rate across the membrane
d) inversely proportional to the flow rate across the membrane
Explanation: The removal of waste products during dialysis is proportional to the concentration gradient across the membrane. In order to effect the maximum gradient, the concentration of waste products in the dialysate should be maintained at zero. This is achieved in most currently employed machines by using the dialysate only once and then discarding it.
2. Counter-current flow through the artificial kidney is used so that the dialysate enters the kidney at the blood exit-end. Where blood concentration of waste products is at the lowest level?
a) lowest level
b) very high level
c) high level
d) medium level
Explanation: Counter-current flow through the artificial kidney is used so that the dialysate enters the kidney at the blood exit-end where blood concentration of waste products is at the lowest level. The removal of waste products during dialysis is proportional to the concentration gradient across the membrane. In order to effect the maximum gradient, the concentration of waste products in the dialysate should be maintained at zero.
3. Parallel flow dialyzer has a low internal resistance. Because of this blood pump is required.
Explanation: Parallel flow dialyzer has a low internal resistance which allows adequate blood flow through the dialyzer with the patient’s arterial blood pressure, eliminating the need for a blood pump. The dialyzing surface area of a parallel flow dialyzer is about 1 sq m. At a blood flow rate of 200 ml/min and a dialysate flow of 500 ml/min, the urea and creatinine clearance is about 80 and 64 ml/min.
4. KIIL dialyzer is a type of _________
a) coil hemodialyzer
b) hollow fiber dialyzer
c) series flow dialyzer
d) parallel flow dialyzer
Explanation: The KIIL dialyzer has earlier been the most commonly used form of parallel flow dialyzer. It consists of three polypropylene boards with dialyzing membranes laid between them. The boards are held firmly with a frame on the top and bottom and are fastened by a series of bolts on the side.
5. The KIIL dialyzer is not disposable.
Explanation: It is true. The KIIL dialyzer is not disposable. It needs to be cleaned and re-built after each dialysis operation. With this type of dialyzer, a single-pass body temperature dialysate passes through the dialyzer once before going to the drain to obtain higher operational efficiency and to minimize bacterial infection.
6. Optical fiber sensors are not immune to electromagnetic disturbances.
Explanation: Optical fiber sensors are electrically passive and consequently immune to electromagnetic disturbances. They are geometrically flexible and corrosion resistant. They can be miniaturized and are most suitable for telemetry applications.
7. In which of the following optic fiber sensor the fiber is simply used to carry light to and from an external optical device where the sensing takes place?
a) extrinsic fiber optic sensor
b) energized fiber optic sensor
c) all fibers are used to simply carry light to and from the external optical devices
d) intrinsic fiber optic sensor
Explanation: In an extrinsic fiber optic sensor fiber is simply used to carry light to and from an external optical device where the sensing takes place. In intrinsic fiber optic sensor one or more of the physical properties of the fiber undergo a change.
8. The volume of blood within the dialyzer is known as __________
a) secondary volume
b) quarterly volume
c) priming volume
d) residual volume
Explanation: The volume of blood within the dialyzer is known as priming volume. It is desirable that this should be minimal. Priming volume of present day dialyzers range from 75 to 200 ml, depending on the membrane area geometry and operating conditions.
9. The ideal membrane should possess __________
a) low permeability to water
b) high permeability to water
c) medium permeability to water
d) high permeability to waste
Explanation: The ideal membrane should possess high permeability to water, organic metabolites and ions, and the capability of retaining plasma proteins. The membrane should be of sufficient wet strength to resist tearing or bursting and non-toxic to blood and all body cells.
10. Which of the following is the commonly used membrane for hemodialysis?
Explanation: Cupraphan is the commonly used membrane for haemodialysis. It is a membrane consisting of natural cellulose and is considered puncture-proof, and of high tenacity and elasticity. During haemodialysis, different substances of varying molecular weight are to be removed.
11. Which of the following is considered to be the primary pacemaker of the heart?
a) sino-atrial node
b) atrio-ventricular node
c) purkinje fibres
d) bundle of his
Explanation: Located in the top right atrium near the entry of the vena cava, are a group of cells known as the sion-atrial node (SA node) that initiates the heart activity. Because of this is is also considered as the primary pacemaker of the heart. The SA node is 25 to 30 mm in length and 2 to 5 mm in thickness.
12. Atrio ventricular node is located at __________
a) upper part of the heart wall between the two atrial
b) lower part of the heart wall above the two atrial
c) lower part of the heart wall between the two atrial
d) upper part of the heart wall above the two atrial
Explanation: The AV node is located in the lower part of the wall between the two atria. The AV node delays the spread of excitation for about 0.12s, due to the presence od a fibrous barrier of non-excitable cells that effectively prevent its propagation from continuing beyond the limits of stria.
13. According to the international 10/20 system to measure EEG, odd number denotes which side of the brain?
Explanation: The position of each electrode is specified using the International 10/20 system. Each electrode site is labeled with a letter and a number. Odd number denote the left side of the head.
14. The delta wave in EEG ranges from _________
Explanation: The delta wave in EEG ranges from 0.5-4Hz. The theta wave in EEG ranges from 4-8Hz. The alpha wave in EEG ranges from 8-13Hz and beta from 13-22Hz.
15. Disturbance in the EEG pattern resulting from the external stimuli is called ________
a) provoked response
b) ckoored response
c) evoked response
d) impulse response
Explanation: Disturbance in the EEG pattern resulting from the external stimuli is called evoked response. The stimuli could be a flash light or a click of sound. The stimuli can be repeated and the EEG waveform can be observed to find the activities occurring because of the stimuli.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Biomedical Instrumentation.
To practice all areas of Biomedical Instrumentation, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.