Biomedical Instrumentation Questions and Answers – Cardiotocograph

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This set of Biomedical Instrumentation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Cardiotocograph”.

1. Ambulatory monitoring of ECG is called ____________
a) Event Cardiography
b) Holter Cardiography
c) Real-Time Cardiography
d) Implantable Cardiography
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Ambulatory monitoring of ECG is called ‘Holter Cardiography’, after Dr. Norman Holter who introduced this concept in 1962. A Holter monitor is a type of ambulatory electrocardiography device, a portable device for cardiac monitoring (the monitoring of the electrical activity of the cardiovascular system) for at least 24 hours (often for two weeks at a time).
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2. Which of the following type of systems are not available for ambulatory ECG monitoring?
a) Holter monitors
b) Event Recorders
c) Time Recorders
d) Implantable Loop Recorders
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Currently, the following four types of systems are available for ambulatory ECG monitoring: I) Holter Monitors II) Event Recorders III) Real-Time Continuous Cardiac Monitoring System IV) Implantable Loop Recorders.

3. The current state of Holter technology uses small recorders, which size is about _______
a) 75 x 20 x 90 cm
b) 75 x 95 x 20 cm
c) 75 x 20 x 95 mm
d) 75 x 95 x 20 mm
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The current state of Holter technology uses small recorders (size 75 x 95 x 20 mm; weight about 190 g) with flashcard technology to record and store data from 2 to 3 ECG leads attached to the patient’s chest and collected continuously over 24 to 48 hours.
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4. Who provides an excellent review of ambulatory cardiac event recorders?
a) Handelsman
b) Benz
c) Alfonso
d) Friesen
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: An excellent review of ambulatory cardiac event recorders is provided by Benz in 1999. The major advantage of these devices compared with a traditional Holter monitor is that they are small, allow ECG monitoring for longer time periods, and can provide nearly real time data analysis when the patient transmits a recording in proximity to the symptomatic event.

5. The monitor automatically transmits recorded data transtelephonically to a central monitoring station for subsequent analysis when an arrhythmia is detected by an arrhythmia algorithm.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In Real-Time Continuous Cardiac Monitoring Systems, the monitor is equipped with software that analyzes the rhythm data continuously and automatically. The monitor automatically transmits recorded data transtelephonically (by wireless network or land phone line) to a central monitoring station for subsequent analysis when an arrhythmia is detected by an arrhythmia algorithm.
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6. In the data recording, the normal speed of sub miniature tape recorder is ___________
a) 3 cm/s
b) 2 cm/s
c) 3 mm/s
d) 2 mm/s
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In data recording, the core of the modern ambulatory monitoring system is a multichannel sub-miniature tape recorder running normally at a speed of 2 mm/s. At this speed, a C-120 entertainment cassette will run for 24 hours.

7. In data recorders, during replay, the tape is run at ________ to achieve rapid manual or automatic scanning of ambulatory records.
a) 80 times of recording speed
b) 70 times of recording speed
c) 60 times of recording speed
d) 50 times of recording speed
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In data recorders, during replay, the tape is run at 120 mm/s (60 times the recording speed) to achieve rapid manual or automatic scanning of ambulatory records. The tape recorders used for this purpose have some special features as compared to the usually available entertainment tape recorders.
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8. Which of the following is not an arrhythmic condition?
a) Cardiographic beat
b) Bradycardia
c) Dropped beat
d) Ectopic beat
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The analyzer part in automatic scanning of ambulatory records look for four arrhythmic conditions. These are bradycardia, tachycardia, dropped beat and premature beat. A threshold control is associated with each of these and when the appropriate threshold is exceeded, an alarm condition is generated.

9. Which CPU has an overall system control responsibility?
a) Control
b) Acquisition
c) Control and timing
d) Acquisition and display
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The control and timing CPU has an overall system control responsibility. It also handles individuals functions such as keyboard and direct writer interface, tape deck control, timing data processing, and arrhythmia count totalizing via a high speed interrupt system.
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10. Full form of P-FCB is ________
a) Planar-Functional Circuit Board
b) Planar-Fashionable Circuit Branch
c) Planar-Functional Circuit Board
d) Planar-Fashionable Circuit Board
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The full form of F-PCB is Planar-Fashionable Circuit Board. Sometimes in Holter monitoring, the patient needs typically 6 to 10 wires worn around the body throughout the day. To overcome these problems, a wearable electrocardiogram acquisition system implemented with planar-fashionable circuit board (F-PCB)-based shirt is explained by Yoo.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter