# Biomedical Instrumentation Questions and Answers – Transmission of Digital Audio

This set of Biomedical Instrumentation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Transmission of Digital Audio”.

1. The instrument picoscale primarily counting for?
a) MCH
b) MCV
c) PBC
d) PCT

Explanation: Based on the same principle of detecting a change in conductivity in the presence of a cell in the orifice of a measuring tube, there is another cell counting instrument known by the name Picoscale. This instrument does not make use of a mercury manometer for fixing the volume thus eliminating the problems associated with its use. This instrument is primarily meant for counting RBC, WBC and PBC and is manufactured by MEDICOR, Budapest.

2. In picoscale, the number of particles N in a unit volume is determined from the relation if H stands for a factor of dilution, L is scaling factor of the counter, V is measured volume and E is result display on the digital display.
a) N = HL/VE
b) N = H/LVE
c) N = HV/LE
d) N = HLV/E

Explanation: One great advantage of this instrument is that the clogging of the capillary is greatly eliminated by applying a bi-directional flow during the measurement procedure. The number of particles N in a unit volume is determined from the relation,
N = HLV/E
where
H = factor of dilution
I = scaling factor of the counter
V = measured volume
E = result displayed on the digital display.

3. For white cells, the diameter of capillaries are?
a) 58 micrometer
b) 72 micrometer
c) 116 micrometer
d) 102 micrometer

Explanation: The capillary diameter for red cell count is 72 um and the dilution factor is 63,000. For white cells, the diameter is 102 um, and the dilution factor is 630. For platelet count, the diameter of the capillary is 72 um and a dilution of 6300 is used.

4. What is the dilution factor of platelet count?
a) 63000
b) 630
c) 6300
d) 63

Explanation: The capillary diameter for red cell count is 72 um and the dilution factor is 63,000. For white cells, the diameter is 102 um, and the dilution factor is 630. For platelet count, the diameter of the capillary is 72 um and a dilution of 6300 is used.

5. Which of the following is not the error of the electronic counter?
a) Settling error
b) Coincidence error
c) Concentration error
d) Dilution errors

Explanation: There are a number of errors that may occur in the electronic cell counting technique. Briefly, these errors are categorized as follows:
Aperture Clogging, Uncertainty of Discriminator Threshold, Coincidence Error, Settling Error, Statistical Error, Error in Sample Volume, Error due to Temperature Variation, Biological Factors, Dilution Errors, Error due to External Disturbances.
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6. In the settling error, if the readings are taken within 4–5 min., the settling error is?
a) Less than 1%
b) Less than 10%
c) More than 1%
d) Equals 1%

Explanation: Settling Error: This error arises due to the settling of the particles in the solution, with the result that the measurements show a decreasing tendency with time. If the readings are taken within 4–5 min., the settling error is less than 1%.

7. To obtain the statistical error, the instrument reading should be multiplied by the scaling factor of the counter.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Assuming Gaussian distribution, the mean statistical error means that 67% of tests fall into the interval (n +or- under-root n) with 33% of the measurements greater than that. To obtain the statistical error, the instrument reading should be multiplied by the scaling factor of the counter. This will yield the value of n.

8. Miller (1976) describes a differential white blood cell classifier based upon a ______ approach.
a) A four-colour flying spot-scanner
b) A four-colour flying-scanner
c) A three-colour flying spot-scanner
d) A three-colour flying-scanner

Explanation: Miller (1976) describes a differential white blood cell classifier based upon a three-colour flying spot-scanner approach. It utilizes recognition parameters based on the principle of geometrical probability functions, which are generated at high speed in a dedicated computer.

9. The system is built around a Zeiss microscope with two______ eyepieces and a _____ oil immersion objective and with computer controlled focusing.
a) 40 x, 10 x
b) 10 x, 40 x
c) 15 x, 40 x
d) 15 x, 10 x

Explanation: The system uses a conventional microscope with automatic focus and stage motion. The system is built around a Zeiss microscope with two 15 x eyepieces and a 40 x oil immersion objective and with computer controlled focusing. A television monitor displays the data and shows the relative position of the cells in each field.

10. Which of the following is not determined by the cell identification system?
a) Lymphocytes
b) Basophils
c) Monocytes
d) Erythrocytes

Explanation: The system is capable of determining segmented neutrophils, bands, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, as well as abnormal cells such as atypical lymphocytes, blasts, nucleated red cells, and immature granulocytes. In addition, the system carries out the red cell morphology, evaluating size, shape, and colour, counts the reticulocytes, estimates the platelet count and plots a distribution of red cell diameters.

11. There are two types of coils employed in the system, which are ______________
a) Tygon coils and mixing coils
b) Mixing coils and tubing coils
c) Delay coils and tygon coils
d) Mixing coils and delay coils

Explanation: Two types of coils are employed in the system—mixing coils and delay coils. Coils are glass spirals of critical dimensions, in which the mixing liquids are inverted several times, so that complete mixing can result. Mixing coils are used to mix the sample and/or reagents. Delay coils are employed when a specimen must be delayed for the completion of a chemical reaction before reaching the colorimeter.

12. What is used to check the wavelength calibration of a spectrometer?
a) Absorption filter
b) Helium oxide filter
c) Homium oxide filter
d) Helium dioxide filter

Explanation: Wavelength calibration of a spectrophotometer can be checked by using a holmium oxide filter as a wavelength standard. Holmium oxide glass has a number of sharp absorption bands, which occur at precisely known wavelengths in the visible and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum.

13. In diff-3 system, counts and differentiates _______ important categories of red blood cells.
a) Three
b) Seven
c) Four
d) Two

Explanation: The system electronically examines conventional microscope blood smear slides and employs optical pattern recognition techniques to achieve the following:
Counts and differentiates seven important categories of red blood cells (erythrocytes); three based on size, two on colour, one on shape and one covering red cells with nuclei (nucleated red cells).

14. The system is designed to analyze standard slides at a_______ slides per hour rate.
a) 30 to 35
b) 20 to 30
c) 40 to 50
d) 35 to 40

Explanation: The system is designed to analyze standard slides at a 35 to 40 slides per hour rate. The actual analysis task takes only 90 s. In fact, the system largely duplicates mechanically and opto-electronically, the manual procedures followed while examining blood smears with a microscope.

15. What enables the system to transfer cell pattern recognition information into differential results in an image processor?
a) A flying spot-scanner
b) A three-colour flying spot-scanner
c) Golay logic processor
d) Golay linear processor

Explanation: Image Processor: The system uses two computers. The second computer is a special purpose pattern recognition computer, the Golay Logic Processor (Golay, 1969), which enables the system to transform cell pattern recognition information into differential results. Golay logic (Preston et al 1979) enables the system to ‘see’ a cell in much the same way as a technologist does.

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