This set of Biomedical Instrumentation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Intravascular Oximeters”.
1. What is the amount of blood in the average adult?
a) 5-10 liters
b) 10-15 liters
c) 5-6 liters
d) 5-15 liters
Explanation: The blood constitutes 5–10% of the total body weight and in the average adult, it amounts to 5–6 l. Blood consists of corpuscles suspended in a fluid called plasma in the proportion of 45 parts of corpuscles (cells) to 55 parts of plasma.
2. Which of the following is not the type of blood cell?
Explanation: The percentage of cells in the blood is called the haematocrit value or packed cell volume (PCV). The majority of the corpuscles in the blood are red blood cells (erythrocytes), others being white blood cells (leucocytes or Leukocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes).
3. Which of the following is the Red Blood Cells?
Explanation: Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells): Red blood cells have the form of a bi-concave disc with a mean diameter of about 7.5 m and thickness of about 1.7 m. The mean surface area of the cell is about 134mm2. There are about 5.5 million of them in every cubic millimetre of blood in men and nearly 5 million in women.
4. The normal red cell lasts approximately ______ before it is destroyed.
a) 90 days
b) 210 days
c) 120 days
d) 60 days
Explanation: In the whole body, there are about 25 billion erythrocytes and they are constantly being destroyed and replaced at a rate of about 9000 million per hour. The normal red cell lasts approximately 120 days before it is destroyed.
5. Who is responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs?
Explanation: The erythrocytes have no nucleus. They are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. Anaemia (reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood) can develop from a change in the number, volume or Hb concentration of erythrocytes, caused by bone marrow dysfunction resulting in the poor production rate of RBCs.
6. The main two types of leukocytes are ____________
a) The neutrophils and the thrombophils
b) The lymphocytes and the neutrophils
c) The neutrophils and the monophils
d) The lymphocytes and the monophils
Explanation: Leucocytes form the defence mechanism of the body against infection. They are of two main types: the neutrophils and the lymphocytes. Neutrophils ingest bacteria and lymphocytes are concerned with an immunological response.
7. ______ play an important role in the blood coagulation process.
Explanation: Platelets are usually tiny, round, oblong or irregularly shaped cells of the blood with an average diameter of approximately 2 m. They play an important role in the blood coagulation process. There are usually 250,000–750,000 platelets in every cubic mm of blood.
8. Which of the following is not the method of cell counting?
a) Microscopic method
b) Electrical conductivity method
c) Automatic optical method
d) Electroscopic method
Explanation: There are three methods of cell counting: i) Microscopic method, ii) Automatic optical method, iii) Electrical conductivity method.
9. What is the difference of measuring accuracy between microscopic counting and electronic counters?
a) + or – 20 %
b) + or – 17%
c) + or – 3%
d) + or – 23%
Explanation: Agoston and Zillich (1971) compared the results of microscopic counting with those made by electronic counters. It may be observed that instead of the + 0r – 20% measuring accuracy in microscopic counting, the electronic counters can provide an accuracy of + or – 3%.
10. What is the ratio of a sample of red blood cells in dilute blood?
Explanation: The method is based on collecting scattered light from the blood cells and converting them into electrical pulses for counting. A sample of dilute blood (1:500 for white cells and 1:50,000 for red cells) is taken in a glass container. It is drawn through a counting chamber in which the blood stream is reduced in cross-section by a concentric high velocity liquid sheath.
11. The instrument of an optical method of counting cells, that require about _____ of blood sample.
a) 100 ml
b) 1 liter
c) 1 ml
d) 10 ml
Explanation: Instruments based on optical technique take about 30 s for completing the count. An accuracy of 2% is attainable. The instruments require about 1 ml of the blood sample.
12. 1 f/l = ____
Explanation: f/l = Femolitres
1f/l = 10-15.
13. _______ will be calculated if the value of PCV and Hb per deciliters are known.
Explanation: It can be calculated if PCV and Hb per dl are known. For example, if PCV is 0.45 and there are 15 g Hb per dl of blood, then
MCHC = (15 /0.45) g/dl
= 33.3 g/dl.
14. PDW index is related to the size range covered by those platelets lying between _______ and _______ percentile.
a) 20th and 84th percentile
b) 16th and 20th percentile
c) 16th and 84th percentile
d) 20th and 80th percentile
Explanation: Platelet Distribution Width (PDW): This index is related to the size range covered by those platelets lying between the sixteenth and eighty fourth percentile. This is the conventional geometric standard deviation of the mean platelet size and is derived from the distribution curve based on the data in a 64-channel pulse height analyzer.
15. Instruments based on the automatic optical technique take about _____ for completing the count blood cells.
a) 30 sec
b) 120 sec
c) 60 sec
d) 90 sec
Explanation: Instruments based on this automatic optical technique take about 30 s for completing the count. An accuracy of 2% is attainable. The instruments require about 1 ml of the blood sample.
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