Biomedical Instrumentation Questions and Answers – Biofeedback Instrumentation

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This set of Biomedical Instrumentation Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Biofeedback Instrumentation”.

1. What is the shape of Leucocytes?
a) Cubic
b) Cuboid
c) Spherical
d) Hollow
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Leucocytes are spherical cells having a nucleus. There are normally 5000–10,000 white cells per cubic mm of blood but their number varies during the day. They live for seven to fourteen days and there is a rapid turn over, with constant destruction and replacement.
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2. Life span of leucocytes is _____________
a) 3 – 4 weeks
b) 7 – 14 days
c) 9 – 10 months
d) 7 – 14 years
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: They live for seven to fourteen days and there is a rapid turn over, with constant destruction and replacement. Leucocytes form the defence mechanism of the body against infection. They are of two main types: the neutrophils and the lymphocytes. Leucocytes are spherical cells having a nucleus.

3. Leucocytes form the defence mechanism of the body against infection.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Leucocytes form the defence mechanism of the body against infection. They are of two main types: the neutrophils and the lymphocytes. Neutrophils ingest bacteria and lymphocytes are concerned with immunological response. The number and proportion of these types of leucocytes may vary widely in response to various disease conditions.
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4. Neutrophills are concerned __________ and lymphocytes are concerned with __________
a) ingestion of bacteria, immunological responses
b) production of bacteria, electrical responses
c) electrical responses, production of bacteria
d) immunological responses, ingestion of bacteria
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Neutrophils ingest bacteria and lymphocytes are concerned with immunological response. The number and proportion of these types of leucocytes may vary widely in response to various disease conditions. For thus reason, it is important to know the total leucocyte count.

5. Neutrophils are smaller than the red cells.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: It is false. Neutrophils are nearly twice as big as the red cells. They contain both a nucleus divided into several lobes and granules in their protoplasm. Lymphocytes are of the same size as the red cells but contain a large density staining nucleus and no granules.
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6. Which of the following option is correct in terms of size?
a) Monocytes > Neutrophils > RBC > lymphocytes
b) Monocytes > Neutrophils > RBC >= lymphocytes
c) Monocytes < Neutrophils < RBC < lymphocytes
d) Monocytes =< Neutrophils < RBC < lymphocytes
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Monocytes are twice as big as neutrophils. Neutrophils are twice as big as the RBC. The lymphotocytes are of almost of the same size of the RBC of smaller.

7. _________ is the ratio of the integrated platelet volume to the platelet count and is expressed in femolitres.
a) Mean Platelet Volume
b) Platelet Distribution Width
c) Red Cell Distribution Width
d) Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is the ratio of the integrated platelet volume to the platelet count and is expressed in femolitres. Red Cell Distribution Width is a numerical expression of the width of the size distribution of red cells. Platelet Distribution Width is related to the size range covered by those platelets lying between the sixteenth and eighty fourth percentile.
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8. Normal mean red cell volume is _____________
a) 6 ± 10 f/l
b) 16 ± 10 f/l
c) 86 ± 10 f/l
d) 56 ± 10 f/l
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Normal mean red cell volume is 86 ± 10 f/l. In diseased conditions, it may fall to 50 f/l or rise upto 150 f/l. 1f/l = 10–15. 1 litre of blood contains 0.45 litres of red cells and if there are 5 ¥ 1012 red cells per litre.

9. Normal mean cell haemoglobin is 29.5 ± 2.5 pg.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: It is true. Normal mean cell haemoglobin is 29.5 ± 2.5 pg. In diseased conditions it may rise to 50 pg or fall to 15 pg.
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10. The percentage of the total specimen volume occupied by the platelets is called ____________
a) Platelet Distribution Width
b) Red Cell Distribution Width
c) Plateletcrit
d) Mean Platelet Volume
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The percentage of the total specimen volume occupied by the platelets is called. Mean Platelet Volume is the ratio of the integrated platelet volume to the platelet count and is expressed in femolitres. Red Cell Distribution Width is a numerical expression of the width of the size distribution of red cells.

11. What is used in modern instrument for intravascular oximetry?
a) photodiode
b) red and infrared LED’s
c) optical fibre
d) phototransistor
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: For intravascular oximetry, modern instruments make use of optical fibres to guide the light signal inside the vessel and the reflected light from the red blood cells back to the light detector.

12. For estimating SO2, usually reflectance at ________ wavelengths are used.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: For estimating SO2, usually the reflectance at two wavelengths, one in the red and the other in the near infrared regions, are used.

13. How many wavelengths are utilized by currently available oximeters?
a) More than 2
b) Less than 2
c) Equal to 2
d) Cannot be determined
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: For estimating SO2, usually the reflectance at two wavelengths, one in the red and the other in the near infrared regions, are used. Currently available fiber-optic oximeters utilize more than two wavelengths to adjust for haematocrit variation.

14. What is used to measure mix venous saturation?
a) Ear Oximeter
b) Pulse Oximeter
c) Skin Reflectance Oximeter
d) Intravascular Oximeter
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Intravasacular oximeters are normally used to measure mixed venous saturation, from which the status of the circulatory system can be deduced. Mixed venous saturation varies in reflecting the changes of oxygen saturation, cardiac output, haematocrit or haemoglobin content and oxygen consumption.

15. The RDW index is expressed by which of the following equation?
a) [(20th – 80th) Percentile Volume / (20th + 80th) Percentile Volume] X 100 X K
b) [(20th + 80th) Percentile Volume / (20th – 80th) Percentile Volume] X 100 X K
c) [(20th – 80th) Percentile Volume / (20th – 80th) Percentile Volume] X 100 X K
d) [(20th + 80th) Percentile Volume / (20th + 80th) Percentile Volume] X 100 X K
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The RDW index is expressed by the following equation [(20th – 80th) Percentile Volume / (20th + 80th) Percentile Volume] X 100 X K. It is a numerical expression of the width of the size distribution of red cells. It is derived by analog computation. The total erythrocyte count is scanned by a continuously variable thresholding circuit. The upper threshold is moved progressively lower from a level equivalent to 360 femolitres until 20 percent of all erythrocytes present have a size above a certain value.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter