Enzyme Technology Questions and Answers – Diagnostic Use of Enzymes

This set of Enzyme Technology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Diagnostic Use of Enzymes”.

1. Which of these is not a plasma specific enzyme?
a) Ferroxidase
b) Pseudocholinesterase
c) Lipoprotein lipase
d) Acid phosphatase
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Acid phosphatase is not a plasma specific enzyme, but plasma nonspecific enzyme. Plasma specific enzymes are those enzymes that have definite and specific function in plasma. Enzymes involved in blood coagulation, ferroxidase, pseudocholinesterase, lipoprotein lipase, etc., are examples of plasma specific enzymes.
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2. Which of the following is not a plasma nonspecific enzymes?
a) Alanine amino transferase
b) Aldolase
c) Enzymes involved in blood coagulation
d) Aspartate transaminase
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Plasma nonspecific enzymes are those enzymes with no known function in plasma. Examples of these enzymes are acid phosphatase, alanine amino transferase, Aldolase, Aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase etc. Enzymes involve in blood coagulation is an example of plasma specific enzyme.

3. Amylase: peptic ulcer:: Trypsin: ___________
a) Prostatic cancer
b) Hepatic parenchymal diseases
c) Cystic fibrosis
d) Hepatobiliary disease
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Amylase is a plasma non-specific enzyme present in salivary glands and pancreas. It is used to diagnose peptic ulcers. In the same way, trypsin being a plasma nonspecific enzyme is present in pancreas and has been used to diagnose cystic fibrosis. prostatic cancer, hepatic parenchymal diseases and hepatobiliary disease can be diagnosed by the plasma nonspecific enzyme such as acid phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, γ-glutamyl transferase respectively.

4. Which of the following enzymes is not used in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction?
a) Aldolase
b) Aspartate transaminase
c) Creatine kinase
d) Lactate dehydrogenase
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Aldolase is the enzyme which is located in skeletal muscle, heart, etc., and is used to diagnose muscle diseases. Whereas, aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase is used in the diagnosis of myocardial infraction.

5. Which of the following enzyme is not used to diagnose hepatobiliary disease?
a) Alkaline phosphatase
b) Alanine aminotransferase
c) γ-glutamyl transferase
d) 5I – nucleotidase
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Alanine aminotransferase is located in liver, skeletal muscle and heart. It is used to diagnose hepatic parenchymal disease. Alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase and 5I – nucleotidase are used in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease.
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6. The group of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aminoacids to ketoacids by transfer of amino groups is referred to as ______________
a) alkaline phosphatase
b) 5I – nucleotidase
c) transaminases
d) γ-glutamyl transferase
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The group of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aminoacids to ketoacids by transfer of amino groups is referred to as transaminases. Alkaline phosphatase is group of enzymes that hydrolyzes organic phosphate at alkaline pH. 5I – nucleotidase is a phosphatase which acts only on 5I – phosphate such as AMP releasing inorganic phosphate and adenosine. γ-glutamyl transferase catalyzes the transfer of γ-glutamyl group from peptides to some acceptor.

7. Which of the following enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerol to β-monoglyceride and fatty acids?
a) Lipase
b) α-amylase
c) Trypsin
d) Acid phosphatase
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Lipase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes triacylglycerol to β-monoglyceride and fatty acids. α-amylase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes α-1,4-glycosidic linkage in polysaccharides. Trypsin hydrolyzes the peptide bonds formed by the carboxyl groups of lysine or arginine with other amino acids. Acid phosphatase hydrolyzes phosphoric acid esters at pH 5-6.

8. In which of the following bone diseases, the plasma alkaline phosphatase levels are 10 to 25 times the normal upper limit?
a) Bone cancer
b) Rickets
c) Fanconi’s syndrome
d) Paget’s disease
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In paget’s disease, the plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels are 10 to 25 times the normal upper limit. Very high levels of ALP are observed in cases of bone cancer. In rickets and osteomalacia, moderate rises are observed in ALP levels. Slight to moderate rise of ALP is seen in fanconi’s syndrome and hyper parathyroidism.

9. Which of the following is not true for macroamylase?
a) Presence of macroamylase in the serum is referred to as macroamylsemia
b) Macroamylase is formed by binding of ordinary S type amylase with IgG, IgA or other normal –abnormal high molecular weight proteins
c) Macroamylsemia is not symptomless
d) Macroamylase causes a harmless condition which may be confused with other causes of hyperamylasemia
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: “Macroamylsemia is not symptomless.” This statement is false because it is symptomless. The statements which are true for macroamylase are as follows:
• Presence of macroamylase in the serum is referred to as macroamylsemia.
• Macroamylase is formed by binding of ordinary S type amylase with IgG, IgA or other normal –abnormal high molecular weight proteins.
• Macroamylase causes a harmless condition which may be confused with other causes of hyperamylasemia.
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10. Which of the following is not a clinical significance of aldolase?
a) Progressive muscular dystrophy
b) Insecticide poisoning
c) Viral hepatitis
d) Prostate cancer
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Serum choline esterase is an indication of possible insecticide poisoning. Hence it is not a clinical significance of aldolase. Clinical significance of aldolase are as follows:
• Progressive muscular dystrophy is detected when high aldolase is seen in the serum.
• Viral hepatitis at early stage can diagnosed by slight increase in aldose levels.
• Prostate cancer at advanced stages may be diagnosed by slight increase in aldose levels.

11. Which of the following is not a clinical significance of cholinesterase?
a) Detection of abnormal cholinesterase variants
b) Asbestosis
c) Liver function test
d) Measurement of exposure of organophosphorus compounds
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Asbestosis is measured when there is elevation in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Serum cholinesterase are useful in the following ways:
• Detection of abnormal cholinesterase variants.
• Liver function test measures the synthetic capacity of liver. Decrease levels are observed in cases of acute chronic hepatitis and in advance cirrhosis and liver cancer.
• Measurement of exposure of organophosphorus compounds because of decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase.

12. Which of the following cannot be detected by using angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)?
a) Sarcoidosis
b) Hodgkin’s disease
c) Tuberculosis
d) Paget’s disease
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In paget’s disease, the plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels are 10 to 25 times the normal upper limit. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to active angiotensin II by cleaving histidine-leucine dipeptide from the carboxylic end of angiotensin I. Following can be detected by using ACE:
• Elevated levels in serum is a marker for sarcoidosis.
• ACE activity is elevated in other conditions such as Hodgkin’s disease, Tuberculosis, asbestosis, cirrhosis leprosy and gaucher’s disease.

13. Prostate specific antigen: Prostate cancer:: Amylase: _____________
a) Liver cancer
b) Leukemia
c) Pancreatic cancer
d) Ovarian cancer
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein with a mild protease activity. PSA is tumor marker for prostate cancer which detects stage and monitors treatment for the same. In the same way, amylase acts as marker for pancreatic cancer. Markers for liver cancer are aldolase, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, 5I – nucleotidase and γ-glutamyl transferase. Markers for leukemia are alkaline phosphatase, LDH etc. For ovarian cancer, placental alkaline phosphatase acts as a marker.
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14. Which of the following does not act as marker for liver cancer?
a) Aldolase
b) Prostate specific antigen
c) γ-glutamyl transferase
d) 5I – nucleotidase
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Prostate specific antigen acts as a marker for prostate cancer and not liver cancer. Markers for liver cancer are aldolase, γ-glutamyl transferase, 5I – nucleotidase etc.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter