Enzyme Technology Questions and Answers – Large Scale Use of Enzyme – Use of Enzymes in Starch Industry

This set of Enzyme Technology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Large Scale Use of Enzyme – Use of Enzymes in Starch Industry”.

1. ____________ involves the dissolution of nanogram-sized starch granules to form viscous suspension.
a) Proteolysis
b) Saccharification
c) Liquefaction
d) Gelatinization
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Gelatinization is the first step in starch conversion which involves the dissolution of nanogram-sized starch granules to form viscous suspension. This is followed by liquefaction in which the starch in hydrolyzed partially. In the last step, starch is further hydrolyzed to glucose and maltose and this process is known as saccharification. Proteolysis is degradation of protein and it is not a part of starch conversion.

2. What does the following equation represent?
\(DE=100*\frac{Number \,of \,glycosydic \,bond \,cleaved}{Initial \,number \,of \,glycosidic \,bonds \,present}\)
a) Dextrose equivalent
b) Degree of hydrolysis
c) Km
d) Kcat
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The above equation represents dextrose equivalent (DE). Dextrose equivalent (DE) indicates the amount of starch that had been cleaved. DE is used to describe the products in starch and glucose syrup industry. In practice,
\(DE=100*\frac{Reducing \,sugar, expressed \,as \,glucose}{Total \,carbohydrate}\)
Thus, DE represents the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages present in terms of percentage. Pure glucose has a DE of 100, pure maltose has a DE of about 50 and starch has a DE of effectively zero.

3. Which of the following enzyme is not used in starch hydrolysis?
a) α – amylase
b) Glucoamylases
c) Papain
d) Pullulanase
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The enzyme which is not used in starch hydrolysis is papain. Papain is obtained Carica Papaya and is used in meat tenderization. α – amylase, glucoamylases and Pullulanase obtained from Bacillus Licheniformis, Aspergillus Niger and Bacillus acidopullulyticus respectively are the enzymes used in starch hydrolysis. Pullulanase cleaves only α – 1,6 links to give straight chain maltodextrins. Glucoamylases cleaves α – 1,4 and α – 1,6 links to give β-glucose. α – amylase cleaves only a-1, 4-oligosaccharide links are cleaved to give a-dextrin’s and predominantly maltose (G2), G3, G6 and G7 oligosaccharides.

4. _________________ is not used in starch hydrolysis.
a) Rennet
b) Sachharifying α – amylase
c) β – amylase
d) Glucoamylase
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Rennet is not used in starch hydrolysis. It is a proteolytic enzyme that is used in the production of cheese to coagulate casein. Saccharifying α – amylase, β – amylase, Glucoamylase obtained from Bacillus Subtilis, malted barley and Aspergillus Niger respectively are used in hydrolysis of starch. Saccharifying α – amylase cleave only α -1,4-oligosaccharide giving rise α -dextrins with maltose, G3, G4 and glucose. β – amylase cleaves α -1,4 links from non-reducing end to give limit dextrins and β – maltose. Glucoamylases cleaves α – 1,4 and α – 1,6 links to give β-glucose.

5. Hydrolyzed starch is not used in which of the following processes?
a) Production of glucose syrups
b) Dehairing
c) Production of maltose syrups
d) Production of baby food
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Hydrolyzed starch is used in the following processes:
* Production of glucose syrups
* Production of maltose syrups
* Production of bulking agents in the food industry
* Production of baby food
* Baking industry
In dehairing, hydrolyzed starch is not used. The process of removal hair from hides is called dehairing. This is done by alkaline proteases which is a far more pleasant and safer than traditionally applied sodium sulfide.
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6. Fungal amylase finds its use in the baking industry.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: With the introduction of combine harvesters, the use of fungal amylases to facilitate gas production and starch modification during fermentation in bread making process had become necessary. They reduce the time between cutting and threshing of the wheat, thus increasing the amounts of use of endogenous enzymes. Hence the above statement is said to be true.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He lives in Bangalore, and focuses on development of Linux Kernel, SAN Technologies, Advanced C, Data Structures & Alogrithms. Stay connected with him at LinkedIn.

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