Enzyme Technology Questions and Answers – Large Scale Use of Enzyme – Application of Protease in Food, Leather and Wool Industries

This set of Enzyme Technology Questions and Answers for Entrance exams focuses on “Large Scale Use of Enzyme – Application of Protease in Food, Leather and Wool Industries”.

1. ____________ is the enzyme used in the production of cheese.
a) Alkaline protease
b) Papain
c) Pancreatic enzymes
d) Rennet
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Rennet (mainly chymosin) is used in the production of cheese. Rennet is obtained from the fourth stomach of unweaned claves. Papain is used to tenderize meat. Alkaline protease is used to remove hair from hides and pancreatic enzymes are often used in leather industry to produce soft leather.
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2. Which of the following enzyme is used to tenderize meat?
a) Alkaline protease
b) Pancreatic enzymes
c) Papain
d) Rennet
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Papain obtained from the leaves and unripe fruit of Carica papaya is used to tenderize meat. Meat tenderization is a complex process. Meat of older animals can be tenderized by injecting the inactive papain into jugular vein of the live animals shortly before slaughter. Due to the resultant reducing conditions after slaughter, free thiols accumulate in the muscle, activating the papain which in turn tenderizes the meat. This is a very effective process as only 2 – 5 ppm of the inactive enzyme needs to be injected.

3. Use of proteases in baking industry.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In banking industry, the dough should be made more quickly and that can be done if the gluten is partially hydrolyzed. A heat liable fungal protease is used so that it can be easily inactivated in the subsequent baking. Weak-gluten flour can spread thinly and retain decorative impressions. But this replaced with high-gluten varieties of wheat. This gluten should be degraded, if such flours are to be used to making biscuits efficiently or for preventing shrinkage of commercial pie pasty from their aluminum dishes.

4. Which of the following enzyme hydrolysis casein?
a) Papain
b) Rennet
c) Alkaline protease
d) Trypsin
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Rennet hydrolyzes the peptide linkage between phenylalanine and methionine residues in the casein protein present in the milk. This results in the release of a hydrophilic oligopeptide and the hydrophobic para-k-casein which removes the protective effect and allows coagulation of the milk to form curds, which are then compressed and turned into cheese.

5. ‘Hanging’ meat allows flavor to develop.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: In addition to tenderizing, ‘hanging’ the meat allows flavor to develop due to the action of endogenous protease after slaughter. Peptides with acidic amino-acids at the terminal gives meaty flavor as compared to that of monosodium glutamate, whereas non-terminal hydrophobic amino-acid residues give bitter flavors. The bitterness being less intense, disappears altogether with larger peptides. Hence the above statement is true.
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6. In leather industry, _____________ is used to remove hair from hides.
a) rennet
b) trypsin
c) alkaline protease
d) papain
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Alkaline protease is used in the leather industry to remove hair from hides. Use of alkaline protease is safer and more pleasant than the use of sodium sulfide which was used traditionally. The enzyme is required in large quantities, but the process should be controlled to improve the quality of leather. Rennet, Papain and Trypsin are used in cheese production, meat tenderization and softening of leather respectively.

7. Pancreatic enzyme are used in _______
a) softening of leather
b) cheese production
c) baking biscuits and pastries
d) tenderizing meat
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: After dehairing from hides, a process involving pancreatic enzyme which increase their suppleness and improves their softness is performed. Rennet is used in cheese production. Fungal proteases are used in baking industry and papain is used to tenderize meat.

8. Which protease is being used to ‘shrink-proof’ wool’?
a) Pancreatic enzyme
b) Rennet
c) Fungal protease
d) Papain
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Papain is used to ‘shrink-proof’ wool in the wool industry. The shrinkage due to movement of wool fibers only in one direction (away from the tip rather than towards it) which is because of overlapping scales pointing towards the fiber tip. This is eliminated by use of papain which involves partially hydrolysis scale tips. This method also gave the wool a silky lustre an added to its value.

9. When protease depolymerize protein, the extent of hydrolysis is described in ________ units.
a) Vmax
b) Km
c) DH
d) Kcat
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: When protease is used to depolymerize the protein, the extent of hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis) is described in DH units and is given by
DH=\(\frac{Number \,of \,peptide \,bond \,cleaved}{Initial \,number \,of \,peptide \,bonds \,present}\)
Commercially, using enzymes such as subtilisin, DH values of up to 30 are produced using protein preparations of 8-12% (w/w).
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10. Which of the following is not an application of enzyme in food industry?
a) Cheese production
b) Shrinkproof wool
c) Production of soya sauce
d) Tenderizing meat
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: ‘Shrinkproof’ wool is an application enzyme papain in the wool industry. Cheese production by rennet, soya sauce production by protease and meat tenderization by papain are application of enzymes in food industry.

11. Soya sauce can be produced by using ____________
a) glucoamylases
b) proteases
c) alcalase
d) lactases
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Soya sauce be produced from soya protein by hydrolyzing with proteases. The whipping expansion can be increased by increasing the hydrolysis to 3.5DH and further increase to 6DH improves its emulsifying effect. Glucoamylases are used in the production of glucose syrups. Alcalase is used in detergent industry to remove stubborn strains. Lactases are used in the production of ice cream and sweetened flavored and condensed milks.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Enzyme Technology.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter