Enzyme Technology Questions and Answers – Future Prospects – Artificial Enzymes

This set of Enzyme Technology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Future Prospects – Artificial Enzymes”.

1. Synthetic polymers or oligomers with enzyme-like activities possess two structural entities, a substrate-binding site and a catalytically effective site are referred to as ___________
a) co-factors
b) co-enzymes
c) biosensors
d) synzymes
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Synthetic polymers or oligomers with enzyme-like activities possess two structural entities, a substrate-binding site and a catalytically effective site are referred to as synzymes. A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme’s activity as a catalyst. Coenzymes are non-protein organic molecules that bind loosely to an enzyme. Most of them are vitamins or are derived from vitamins. Biosensors are analytical devices that converts a biological response into an electrical signal.
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2. Which of the following is not true for synzymes?
a) They are referred to as artificial enzymes
b) They possess two structural entities which are a substrate binding site and a catalytically effective site
c) They do not obey the Miachelis-Menten kinetics
d) Producing catalytic site is difficult
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The statement which is not true for synzymes is “they do not obey Miachelis-Menten kinetics.” The statement which is true for synzymes are as follows:
• They are referred to as artificial enzymes.
• They possess two structural entities which are a substrate binding site and a catalytically effective site.
• In this case, producing the catalytic site is difficult.
• In this case, producing facility for substrate binding is relatively straightforward.

3. Derivative of myoglobin acts as an effective natural ascorbate oxidase.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Myoglobin is used as an oxygen carrier in muscle. The derivative of myoglobin is achieved by attaching (Ru(NH3)5)3+ to three surface histidine residues. This helps in conversion from an oxygen carrier to an oxidase by oxidizing ascorbic acid while reducing molecular oxygen. Thus, this derivative acts as an effective natural ascorbate oxidase. Hence the above statement is true.

4. Which of the following do not show synzymic properties?
a) Papain
b) Myoglobin
c) Polyglutamic acid
d) Cyclodextrins
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Papain do not show synzymic properties. It is a protease enzyme that is used in meat tenderization. The following items show synzymic properties:
• Derivative of myoglobin acts as an effective natural ascorbate oxidase and is achieved by attaching (Ru(NH3)5)3+ to three surface histidine residues.
• Polyglutamic acts as an esterase in the same fashion as the acid proteases for the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate.
• Cyclodextrins synthesized from starch by the cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus macerans. Synzymic cyclodextrins are usually derivatized in order to introduce catalytically relevant groups.
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5. Cyclodextrins are synthesized from starch using __________
a) yeast
b) cyclomaltodextrin glucan transferase
c) B. acidopullulyticus
d) B. Licheniformis
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Cyclodextrins are synthesized from starch using cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase. Yeast is used to produce invertase which is used is used fermentation of wine. B. acidopullulyticus is used to produce pullulanase which cleaves α-1,6-links to give straight-chain maltodextrins. B. Licheniformis is used to produce Termamyl which is an α-amylase.

6. β-cyclodextrins was not as active as natural transaminases.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Cyclodextrins may be synthesized from starch by the cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus macerans. Derivatives of synzymic cyclodextrins are used to introduce catalytically relevant groups. For example, C-6 hydroxyl group of β-cyclodextrins was covalently derivatized by an activated pyridoxal coenzyme. The resulting synzyme acted as a transaminase and also showed stereo-selectivity for the L-amino acids. But, the resultant synzyme was not as active as natural transaminases. Hence the above statement is true.

7. Which of the following synzyme has 27% of the activity of a-chymotrypsin against 4-nitrophenyl esters?
a) Primary amines alkylated with 1-iodododecane and 4(5)-chloromethylimidazole
b) Myoglobin achieved by attaching (Ru(NH3)5)3+ to three surface histidine residues
c) C-6 hydroxyl group of β-cyclodextrins was covalently derivatized by an activated pyridoxal coenzyme
d) Polyglutamic acid acts as an esterase in much the same fashion as the acid proteases for the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Polyethyleneimine is formed by polymerizing ethylenemine to give a highly branched hydrophilic three-dimensional matrix out of which 25% of the resultant amines are primary, 50% secondary and 25% tertiary. If 40% of the primary amines may be alkylated with 1-iodododecane to give hydrophobic binding sites and the remainder is alkylated with 4(5)-chloromethylimidazole to give general acid-base catalytic sites. Thus, the resultant synzyme has 27% of the activity of α-chymotrypsin against 4-nitrophenyl esters and it has very low esterase specificity.
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8. Which of the following is not a strategy to produce synzymes?
a) Monoclonal antibodies covalently attached to the phosphonate esters which can act as esterases
b) Molecular imprinting of polymers
c) Primary amines alkylated with 1-iodododecane and 4(5)-chloromethylimidazole
d) Synthesis of cyclodextrins from starch by the cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus macerans
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: “Synthesis of cyclodextrins from starch by the cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus macerans” is not a strategy to produce synzyme. Following are the strategies to produce synzymes:
• Monoclonal antibodies that are raised to immunize protein conjugates covalently with phosphonate esters which helps them to act as esterases.
• Molecular imprinting of polymers with the help of transition state analogues to shape polymerizing resins or inactive non-enzymic protein during heat denaturation.
• Primary amines from polyethyleneimine are alkylated with 1-iodododecane and 4(5)-chloromethylimidazole to produce synzyme which has 27% of the activity of α-chymotrypsin against 4-nitrophenyl esters.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Enzyme Technology.

To practice all areas of Enzyme Technology, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter