Enzyme Technology Questions and Answers – Clinical Significance of Amylase, Transaminase and Proteinases

This set of Enzyme Technology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Clinical Significance of Amylase, Transaminase and Proteinases”.

1. Enzymes that perform physiological function are termed as _______
a) allosteric enzymes
b) isoenzymes
c) non-functional enzymes
d) functional enzymes
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Enzymes that perform physiological function are termed as functional enzymes. Examples: lipoprotein lipase in circulation and enzymes of blood coagulation. Whereas enzymes having no physical function are referred to as non-functional enzymes. Multiple forms of the same enzyme are referred to as isoenzyme. The enzymes having allosteric sites, other than the catalytic site which is used for binding for regulatory metabolites is referred to as allosteric enzymes.
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2. Enzymes that do not perform physiological functions are called as _________
a) biosensor
b) isoenzymes
c) non-functional enzymes
d) functional enzymes
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Enzymes that are present in low concentrations in plasma and have no physiological functions are called as non-functional enzymes. Whereas, enzymes that perform physiological function are termed as functional enzymes. Multiple forms of the same enzyme are referred to as isoenzyme. The analytical device which converts a biological response into an electrical signal is referred to as a biosensor.

3. Which of the following enzyme hydrolyzes α-1,4 linkages in starch and glycogen to yield maltase?
a) Transaminase
b) Proteinases
c) α-amylase
d) Chymotrypsin
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: α-amylase hydrolyzes α-1,4 linkages in starch and glycogen to yield maltase. Transaminase are the enzymes which are involved in the transfer of aminoacids. Proteinases are those that hydrolyze elastin and other protein present in extracellular matrix. Chymotrypsin is an endopeptidase which converts chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin.

4. Amylase is found in ________ at higher concentration.
a) pancreatic juice
b) milk
c) tears
d) urine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Amylase is found in pancreatic and saliva juice at higher concentration. Whereas skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, gonads, fallopian tube, tears, milk and urine have low concentration of amylase.

5. Which of the following clinical condition does not show increase of amylase concentration?
a) Diabetic ketoacidosis
b) Cardiac arrest
c) Salivary gland disorders
d) Ruptured ectopic pregnancy
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Following clinical condition shows an increase of amylase concentration:
• Severe diabetic ketoacidosis.
• Salivary gland disorders such as mumps, salivary calculi.
• Ruptured ectopic pregnancy.
During cardiac arrest, the activities of transaminases are increased.
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6. Which of the following is not a clinical condition associated with amylase?
a) Acute oliguric renal failure
b) Acute pancreatitis
c) Myocardial infarction
d) Duodenal ulcer
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Plasma ALT (transaminases) levels increases following myocardial infarction. Following clinical conditions are associated with amylase:
• Acute oliguric renal failure.
• Acute pancreatitis.
• Duodenal ulcer: The ampulla is involved in the inflammatory process thus blocking secretion of pancreatic juice into the duodenum.

7. Which of the following is not a clinical condition associated with amylase?
a) Liver disease
b) Sphincter of oddi
c) Macroamylsemia
d) Pneumonia
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Following clinical conditions are associated with amylase:
• Sphincter of oddi: results due to contraction of pancreatic duct sphincter.
• Macroamylsemia: results due to increase in plasma amylase with decrease in urinary excretion.
• Due to increased plasma amylase activity, cerebral trauma, shock and pneumonia may occur.
Transaminases are sensitive markers of hepatocellular injury. The value of transaminases reaches a peak when the illness is maximum.

8. Which of the following is a transaminase?
a) α-amylase
b) Chymotrypsin
c) Proteinases
d) Alanine transaminase
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Transaminase are the enzymes which are involved in transfer of aminoacids. The important transaminases are alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase. α-amylase hydrolyzes α-1,4 linkages in starch and glycogen to yield maltase. Proteinases are those that hydrolyze elastin and other protein present in extracellular matrix. Chymotrypsin is an endopeptidase which converts chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin.

9. Which of the following do not have high concentration of aspartate transaminase?
a) Heart
b) Liver
c) Saliva juice
d) Kidney
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Amylase is found in pancreatic and saliva juice at higher concentration. Heart, skeletal muscles, liver, kidney and erythrocytes have higher concentration of aspartate transaminase.
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10. Alanine transaminase is present in _________
a) pancreatic juice
b) liver
c) saliva juice
d) colostrum
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Alanine transaminase is present in the liver. Whereas amylases are present in higher concentrations in pancreatic and saliva juice and low concentrations in colostrum, tears, milk, urine, gonads fallopian tube, etc.

11. Which of the following is not a clinical condition associated with transaminases?
a) Cardiac arrest
b) Macroamylsemia
c) Myocardial infarction
d) Liver disease
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Macroamylsemia: results due to an increase in plasma amylase with a decrease in urinary excretion. The important transaminases are alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminases (AST). Following are the clinical conditions associated with transaminases:
a) Cardiac arrest: During cardiac arrest, the activities of transaminases (ALT and AST) are increased.
c) Myocardial infarction: Plasma AST levels increases following myocardial infarction. The activity is more at 6-8hrs after onset, reaches its peak between 24-48hrs and attains normal level by 4-6-days.
d) Liver disease: AST and ALT are sensitive markers of hepatocellular injury in which ALT is a more specific indicator. The values are higher when illness is maximum. In case of inflammation, ALT activities are higher than AST.

12. ___________ exists as inactive precursor in neutrophils.
a) Alanine transaminase
b) Proteinases
c) α-amylase
d) Chymotrypsin
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Proteinases hydrolyze elastin and various types of collagen and other proteins present in extracellular matrix. Proteinases exists as inactive precursor in neutrophils. Alanine transaminase is seen in liver, whereas chymotrypsin is a protease present in pancreas. α-amylase is present in saliva and pancreatic juice in higher concentration.

13. Genetic deficiency of __________ digests the pulmonary tissue.
a) α – amylase
b) α – 1 antitrypsin
c) Transaminase
d) α – 2 macroproteinase
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Genetic deficiency of α -1 antitrypsin causes elastase to act on a host and digest the pulmonary tissue. α-amylase hydrolyzes α-1,4 linkages in starch and glycogen to yield maltase. Transaminase are the enzymes which are involved in transfer of aminoacids. α – 2 macroproteinase is an anti-proteinase which keeps a check on the activity of proteinases.
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14. Pick odd one out.
a) α – amylase
b) α – 1 macroproteinase
c) Transaminase
d) Proteinase
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The odd one out is α – 1 macroproteinase as the other three namely, α – amylase, transaminase, proteinase are enzymes. α – 1 macroproteinase is an anti-proteinase which keeps a check on the activity of proteinases. Proteinases are the enzymes which hydrolyze elastin, various types of collagen and other proteins present in it. α-amylase hydrolyzes α-1,4 linkages in starch and glycogen to yield maltase. Transaminase are the enzymes which are involved in transfer of aminoacids.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter