Drug Biotechnology Questions and Answers – Controlled Release Medication – Pharmacotherapy of Diabetes – 2

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This set of Drug Biotechnology Questions and Answers for Entrance exams focuses on “Controlled Release Medication – Pharmacotherapy of Diabetes – 2”.

1. Which of the following is a drug for diabetes mellitus?
a) Omeprazole
b) Acetanilide
c) Biguanides
d) Amlodipine
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Biguanides decreases the overproduction of glucose by the liver and makes insulin more effective in peripheral tissues. It is used in obese diabetics. It does not stimulate insulin release. It is metabolized by the kidney, do not use with renal patients. Example of Metformin (Glucophage).
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2. Which of the following is a drug for diabetes mellitus?
a) Alpha-glucoside inhibitors
b) Acetanilide
c) Sucralfate
d) Amlodipine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Alpha-glucoside Inhibitors are slow carbohydrate digestion and delay rate of glucose absorption. The patient has to take with the first bite of the meal or after 15 min. Adjunct to diet to decrease blood glucose levels. Example of such drugs is Acarbose (Precose), Miglitol (Glyset).

3. Which of the following is a drug for diabetes mellitus?
a) Thiazolidinedione
b) Acetanilide
c) Thiazide-thiazide like diuretics
d) Amlodipine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Thiazolidinedione sensitizes peripheral tissues to insulin, inhibits glucose production and improves sensitivity to insulin in muscle, and fat tissue. Used in obese diabetics. Example of such drugs is Rosiglitazone (Avandia), Pioglitazone (Actos).
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4. Which of the following sentences can define clearly an insulin analog?
a) Fully synthetic molecules
b) Modified to act slower or faster
c) Similar to bovine insulin used in other animals
d) Drugs which have a similar structure to the insulin
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: An insulin analog is a chemical compound that is made by deletion, substitution, the addition of amino acids or a chain to the parent insulin molecule. The parent chain of insulin has 51 amino acids. Too make it fast acting or slow acting or to increase its half-life researchers try to create different forms of insulin analogue.

5. Which of the following is manufactures by Eli Lilly and has been marketed since 1966?
a) Lispro
b) Insulin Aspart
c) Glulisine
d) Glargine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Insulin lispro was marketed by Eli Lilly under the brand name Humalog. Humalog has been available since 1966. Lysine and proline residues on the C-terminal end of the B-chain are reversed.
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6. Which of the following insulin analogue was approved by the FDA and marketed by Novo Nordisk?
a) Lispro
b) Insulin Aspart
c) Glulisine
d) Glargine
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Insulin aspart was approved by the Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) in 2000 and is marketed by Novo Nordisk under the brand name NovoLog. The amino acid, B28 of the parent insulin peptide chain, which is normally proline, is substituted with an aspartic acid residue.

7. Which of the following insulin analogue was available from 206 and marketed by Sanofi-Aventis?
a) Lispro
b) Insulin Aspart
c) Glulisine
d) Glargine
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Insulin glulisine has become available in 2006. It is best known by its brand name Apidra and is marketed by Sanofi-Aventis. The amino acid asparagine at position B3 is replaced by lysine and the lysine in position B29 is replaced by glutamic acid, thus it gets its name glulisine.
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8. Which of the following is a long-acting insulin analogue?
a) Lispro
b) Insulin aspart
c) Glulisine
d) Glargine
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Glargine is manufactured by Aventis Pharmaceuticals and is marketed under the brand name Lantus. Insulin glargine has a substitution of glycine for asparagine at A21 and two arginines added to the carboxy terminal of B chain. Thus its name is gl-arginine.

9. Which one of the following is marketed by the name Levemir by Novo Nordisk?
a) Detemir
b) Insulin aspart
c) Glulisine
d) Glargine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Detemir is marketed under the brand name Levemir and manufactured by Novo Nordisk. It is an insulin analogue in which a fatty acid (myristic acid) is bound to the lysine amino acid at position B29. It is quickly absorbed after which it binds to albumin in the blood through its fatty acid at position B29. It then slowly dissociates from this complex.
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10. Which of the following is ultra-short-acting insulin analogue?
a) Detemir
b) Insulin aspart
c) Insulin NPH
d) Glargine
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: It was approved by the FDA in 2000. Insulin aspart has a rapid onset and short duration of glucose lowering activity. The amino acid, B28 of the parent chain, which is normally proline, is substituted with an aspartic acid residue making it short-acting insulin. This means this drug has to be taken just before meals.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter