Drug Biotechnology Questions and Answers – Biopharmaceuticals – Pharmacotherapy of Multiple Sclerosis

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This set of Drug Biotechnology online test focuses on “Biopharmaceuticals – Pharmacotherapy of Multiple Sclerosis”.

1. Which age group is more prone to Multiple sclerosis?
a) 0-5 years
b) 20-75 years
c) Adults of above 20 years
d) Adults of above 70 years
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Age of diagnosis usually 20 to 50. Patients have been as young as 2 and as old as 75 years of age. The environment may be influencing MS. Multiple sclerosis is predominant in cooler climates and areas further from the equator. Thus, researchers have the idea that vitamin D may play a role.
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2. Chances in females are more than in men.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Genetic Factors which may control or influence MS is 2-3 times more likely in females than males. This may be variable among races and ethnicities such that it is highest in northern European Caucasians, lowest in Asians. No particular gene has been identified so far likely multiple genes are involved.

3. Which of the following is not a key player in Multiple sclerosis?
a) Axon
b) Myelin
c) Actin
d) T cells
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Actin is present in muscles; it helps in muscles contraction and relaxation. Myelin gets attacked by the immune system. Oligodendrocytes, Blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients, cytokines, t-cells, antigen presenting cells are the key players of Multiple sclerosis.
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4. APC cells present ______________ antigen to T cells.
a) Axon
b) Myelin
c) Actin
d) Oligodendrocytes
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: APC cells present myelin antigen to T-cells. These t cells pass through the BBB. Normally BBB prevents the passage of potentially harmful substances through blood vessel walls within the brain. But MS patients’ BBB ‘springs a leak’ which tends to allow all the activated t cells across the BBB which attack the myelin sheath.

5. What is the problem with the blood-brain barrier of a patient of Multiple Sclerosis?
a) Springs a leak
b) Allows all T-cells
c) Allows all antigens
d) Becomes rigid even don’t let carbon dioxide pass through.
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Normally BBB prevents the passage of potentially harmful substances through blood vessel walls within the brain. But MS patients’ BBB ‘springs a leak’ thus it, as a result, allows activated T-cell to cross BBB and mount an attack on myelin. This leads to several events that lead to demyelination such as swelling, activation of macrophages, etc.
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6. The patient of Multiple sclerosis will start the remyelination process.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Myelinating oligodendrocytes are able to rebuild thinner, less effective myelin sheaths. This may be reason symptoms decrease in temporarily disappear during the early part of the disease. But there is still irreversible loss and nerve damage. It is the natural tendency of the nerves to form myelin sheaths again.

7. Which of the following is not a symptom for Multiple sclerosis?
a) Polyphagia
b) Short term memory dysfunction
c) Depression
d) Fatigue
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Polyphagia is a symptom of diabetes. 90 % of the patients suffer from being fatigued. &0% of them suffer from depression they have an increased tendency to commit suicide. Cognitive defects are short term memory dysfunction.
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8. Which of the following is not a symptom for Multiple sclerosis?
a) Constipation
b) Numbness
c) Twitching of eyes
d) Polydipsia
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Polydipsia is a symptom for diabetes which means meaning thirsty and drinking water frequently. Genitourinary symptoms of multiple sclerosis are constipation and urine frequency. Motor involving symptoms are muscle weakness, numbness. Visual symptoms of MS are blurring and twitching of eyes.

9. How is alpha interferon produced?
a) Produced by virus-infected leukocytes
b) Produced by virus-infected fibroblasts
c) Produced by activated NK cells
d) Produced by bacterial activated leukocytes
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Interferons play an important role in the first line of defense against viral infections. Interferons are made by cells in response to an appropriate stimulus. Alpha interferon which is leukocyte interferon is produced by virus-infected leukocytes.
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10. How is beta interferon produced?
a) Produced by virus-infected leukocytes
b) Produced by virus-infected fibroblasts
c) Produced by activated NK cells
d) Produced by bacterial activated leukocytes
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Beta interferon which is fibroblast interferon is produced by certain activated t Cells and NK cells. Interferons play an important role in the first line of defense against viral infections. Interferons are part of the non-specific immune system. Interferons are made by cells in response to an appropriate stimulus.

11. How are gamma interferon produced?
a) Produced by virus-infected leukocytes
b) Produced by virus-infected fibroblasts
c) Produced by activated NK cells
d) Produced by bacterial activated leukocytes
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Gamma which is immune interferon is produced by certain activated T cells & NK cells. Alpha which is leukocyte interferon is produced by virus-infected leukocytes. Beta fibroblast interferon is produced by virus-infected fibroblasts or epithelial cells.

12. Which of the following is a drug for Multiple sclerosis?
a) Avonex and Rebif
b) Sucralfate
c) Pantoprazole
d) Cocaine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Avonex and Rebif are beta 1-a-interferon. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Sucralfate is used in peptic ulcer. Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used in peptic ulcer. Cocaine is used as an anesthetics.

13. Which of the following is a drug for Multiple sclerosis?
a) Betaseron
b) Sucralfate
c) Pantoprazole
d) Cocaine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Beta 1-b is interferon. Betaseron diminishes the activity of specific WBCs causing disease. Since MS is not curable so all the treatments are there to slow the progression of the disease. This medicine decreases the working of the specific WBCs.

14. Which of the following is a drug for Multiple sclerosis?
a) Glatiramer acetate
b) Sucralfate
c) Pantoprazole
d) Cocaine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Glatiramir acetate is a known medicine for multiple sclerosis. Glatiramir acetate is believed to modify the immune process that causes multiple sclerosis. The most important treatment of this disease is to decrease the influence of the immune system so that no more myelin antigens are produced.

15. Which one of the following is a treatment for Multiple sclerosis?
a) Decrease depression
b) Prevent damage to BBB
c) Provide glucose so that the patient does not feel fatigued
d) Provide paracetamol to decrease frequent fever
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: There is no cure for multiple sclerosis. The treatment is focussed on the relief of symptoms and slower progression of the disease. The patient response to the disease and treatment will differ from patient to patient. Treatment is focussed around to decrease the damage of the blood-brain barrier.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter