Drug Biotechnology Questions and Answers – Controlled Release Medication – Pharmacotherapy of Diabetes – 1

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This set of Drug Biotechnology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Controlled Release Medication – Pharmacotherapy of Diabetes – 1”.

1. Which of the following is the definition for diabetes 1?
a) The immune system destroys beta cells and no more insulin is being produced
b) The body becomes resistant to insulin
c) Insulin is produced but not efficiently used up
d) Receptors for insulin are destroyed
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Type 1 Diabetes is when the immune system destroys beta cells and no more insulin is being produced. It is the result of pancreas fails to produce enough insulin due to the loss of beta cells. This is also known as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus”. The cause of the disease is not known and may be an autoimmune disease.
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2. Which one of the following will be characteristics of diabetes type 2?
a) The body becomes resistant to insulin
b) Immune cells destroy beta cells
c) Immune cells destroy kidney
d) Increase of blood sugar
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Type 2 Diabetes is when the body becomes resistant to insulin, insulin is being produced but not being efficiently used up. It is a condition where the body fails to respond to insulin properly. This is also known as “non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus”. The most common cause will be excessive body weight.

3. What do you understand by the term ‘manifestation’ related to diabetes?
a) The immune system destroys beta cells and no more insulin is being produced
b) The body becomes resistant to insulin
c) Insulin is produced but not efficiently used up
d) Beta cell destruction
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Manifestation is the process of beta cell destruction which occurs very slowly. Hyperglycemia occurs when 80 – 90% of the beta cells are destroyed. This then triggers stressor event (e. g. illness).

4. What do you mean by polydipsia?
a) Thirst from dehydration
b) Osmotic diuretic like activity being a hyperglycaemic
c) Hunger
d) Weight loss
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Hyperglycaemia acts as an osmotic diuretic and thus increased the frequency of urination. This leads to thirst from dehydration and the patient tends to drink a lot of water. Polyuria is frequent urination. Hunger and frequent eating is polyphagia. Polydipsia is thirst from dehydration.

5. What do you mean by polyuria?
a) Thirst from dehydration
b) Osmotic diuretic like activity being a hyperglycaemic
c) Hunger
d) Weight loss
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Polyuria is urination several times a day. This is a common symptom for all diabetes patient. Being hyperglycemia it acts as an osmotic diuretic thus increases the renal fluid absorption and thus urination is maximum. Thirst from dehydration is polydipsia. Hunger is polyphagia.
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6. What do you mean by polyphagia?
a) Thirst from dehydration
b) Osmotic diuretic like activity being a hyperglycaemic
c) Hunger
d) Weight loss
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Polyphagia is the name given to a diabetes patient who is suffering from hunger, and eats more often because his cells are not able to utilize glucose. The patients also suffer from chronic weight loss since the body tends to break down fat and protein to restore energy source.

7. Which of the following is not a natural phenomenon being a diabetes patient?
a) Increased urination
b) Thirst from dehydration
c) Less crave for food
d) Weight loss
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: A person with diabetes will have hunger and will eat more since cells cannot utilize the ongoing glucose concentration of the body. When there is no glucose or the body cannot utilize the glucose the stomach signals the brain for hunger and brain tells us we are hungry as a result diabetes patient feel hungry more often.

8. What is gestational diabetes?
a) The body becomes resistant to insulin
b) Immune cells destroy beta cells
c) Occurs in a pregnant women
d) Increase of blood sugar
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Apart from Type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 Dm there is a 3rd main form of diabetes also known as gestational diabetes. It occurs in pregnant women without previous history of diabetes. High blood sugar levels will be seen in these women. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrate, fats, and protein by promoting the absorption of carbohydrates especially glucose from the blood into the liver, skeletal muscle, and fat.

9. Which of the following is not a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?
a) Casual plasma glucose (non-fasting) is 200 mg/dl
b) Fasting plasma glucose of 126 mg/dl or higher
c) A two-hour plasma glucose level of 200 mg/dl
d) Casual plasma glucose (non-fasting) is 100 mg/dl
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: A patient is symptomatic plus if his/her casual plasma glucose (non-fasting) is 200 mg/dl or fasting plasma glucose of 126 mg/dl or higher. It can also be seen by a two-hour plasma glucose level of 200 mg/dl or greater during an oral glucose tolerance test.
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10. Which of the following is a symptom for diabetes mellitus?
a) Fever
b) Bones panning
c) Cold and cough
d) Kussmals respirations
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Kussmals breathing is blowing off carbon dioxide to reverse acidosis. This is done when kidneys are not removing excess acid from the body. Fever, cough, body ache are not a symptom for this disease. Fruity breath, nausea, abdominal pain, dehydration, lethargy, coma, polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia are the symptoms of diabetes mellitus.

11. Which of the following is a symptom for diabetes mellitus?
a) Fever
b) Bones panning
c) Fruity breath
d) Increase breathing
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Fever, body pain, an increase in breathing are not a symptom of diabetes mellitus. Fruity breath, Kussmals respiration, nausea, abdominal pain, dehydration, lethargy, coma, polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia are the symptoms of diabetes mellitus.

12. Clients with hypertension or HDL cholesterol < 35 mg/dL, and/or triglyceride level > 250 mg/dl may have diabetes.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Clients with hypertension, HDL cholesterol < 35 mg/dL, and/or triglyceride level > 250 mg/dl have the risk factor for diabetes mellitus. History of diabetes in parents or siblings can give us diabetes mellitus. Obesity, especially of the upper body, possesses a huge risk of diabetes mellitus.

13. Women with a history of gestational diabetes or delivered a bay above 9 pounds don’t have a risk of having diabetes.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Women who have a history of gestational diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, or delivered a baby with birth weight > 9 pounds have the risk factor of diabetes mellitus. Physical inactivity of this generation kids also leads to diabetes mellitus in the later life. Race/ethnicity also have a chance to give us type 2 diabetes. Such as African American, Hispanic, or American Indian origin have more chance of getting diabetes mellitus.
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14. Which of the following is a drug for diabetes mellitus?
a) Omeprazole
b) Sulfonylureas
c) Pantoprazole
d) Mannitol
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Sulfonylureas stimulates pancreatic cells to secrete more insulin and increases the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin. It is used to treat non-obese Type 2 diabetics. Example of the medicine in sulfonylureas class is Glipizide.

15. Which of the following is a drug for diabetes mellitus?
a) Omeprazole
b) Acetanilide
c) Pantoprazole
d) Meglitinide
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Meglitinide stimulates pancreatic cells to secrete more insulin. It should be taken just before meals, rapid onset, limited duration of action. Major adverse effects are hypoglycemia (low levels of blood sugar). Used in non-obese diabetics i.e. type 2 diabetes. Example: Repaglinide.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Drug and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.

To practice all areas of Drug and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn