Drug Biotechnology Questions and Answers – Drugs Biotransformation – Affecting Factors

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This set of Drug Biotechnology Puzzles focuses on “Drugs Biotransformation – Affecting Factors”.

1. What is enzyme induction?
a) The phenomenon of increased drug metabolizing ability of enzymes by drugs and chemicals
b) The phenomenon of increasing drug bioavailability drugs and chemicals
c) The phenomenon of increasing drug distribution drugs and chemicals
d) The phenomenon of increasing drug concentration for a particular tissue by drugs and chemicals
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The phenomenon of increased drug metabolizing ability of enzymes by drugs and chemicals is called as enzyme induction and the agents which helps to bring such changes are known as inducers.
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2. Which of the following drugs has self -induction to stimulate their own metabolism?
a) Cortisol
b) Pentobarbital
c) Meprobamate
d) Contraceptives
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Drugs such as carbamazepine, Meprobamate, cyclophosphamide, rifampicin, etc. stimulate their own metabolism. This phenomenon is known as auto-induction or self -induction.

3. Alcohol is the inducer for which drug?
a) Cortisol
b) Pentobarbital
c) Meprobamate
d) Oral contraceptives
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Alcohol act as an inducer for pentobarbital, coumarins, and phenytoin. Meprobamate is self-inducing. Oral contraceptives are induced by barbiturates.

4. What is the name of the process where structurally same compounds compete for the same site on an enzyme to inhibit that?
a) Altered physiology
b) Repression
c) Non-competitive inhibition
d) Competitive inhibition
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Competitive inhibition results when structurally similar compounds compete for the same site on an enzyme. Such an inhibition due to substrate competition is reversible and can be overcome by a high concentration of one substrate. Methacholine inhibits the metabolism of acetylcholine by competing with it for cholinesterase.

5. What is the name of the process where structurally different compounds interact with the enzyme and prevent the metabolism of the drug?
a) Altered physiology
b) Repression
c) Non-competitive inhibition
d) Competitive inhibition
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Non-competitive inhibition happens when structurally different compounds interact with the enzyme and prevent the metabolism of the drug. This interaction is not structured specifically. So lead, mercury, arsenic, organophosphorus insecticides inhibit enzymes noncompetitively.
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6. What is the name of the process where the enzyme amount is decreased due to a decrease in enzyme synthesis?
a) Altered physiology
b) Repression
c) Non-competitive inhibition
d) Competitive inhibition
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Repression is the process where the enzyme amount is decreased due to a decrease in enzyme synthesis. The synthesis of the enzyme can be affected by puromycin and actinomycin D. It can also happen by raising the rate of enzyme degradation such as carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulphide, disulfiram, etc.

7. What is the name of the process where due to nutritional deficiency an enzyme content is decreased?
a) Altered physiology
b) Repression
c) Non-competitive inhibition
d) Competitive inhibition
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Altered physiology is the process where due to nutritional deficiency an enzyme content is decreased. Thus decreasing the enzyme content, and decreasing the drug metabolizing time.

8. Which one of the following is not an environmental agent to decrease drug metabolizing ability?
a) DDT
b) Cigarette smoke
c) Organophosphate insecticides
d) Methacholine
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Methacholine inhibits the metabolism of acetylcholine by competing with it for cholinesterase. It is not an environmental factor. Halogenated pesticides e.g. DDT, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon e.g. cigarette smoke, organophosphate insecticides, heavy metals inhibit drug metabolizing of enzymes.

9. What is polygenic control of drugs?
a) Drug controlling seen in an individual
b) Drug controlling seen in twins
c) Drug controlling seen in between different species
d) Drug controlling seen in a particular population
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Polygenic control has been observed in twins. In identical twins that are monozygotic twins, there is very little or no difference in drug metabolism. It was detected that there was no difference in the metabolism of phenylbutazone, dicoumarol, and antipyrine. Although large variations were detected in dizygotic twins.
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10. Differences observed in metabolism of drug among different races is known as ______________
a) Pharmacogenetics
b) Ethnic variations
c) Discontinues variation
d) Polygenic control
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Differences observed in the metabolism of the drug among different races is known as ethnic variation. Polygenic control is the control of drug metabolizing in the twins. Pharmacogenetics is the study of inter-subject variability in drug response.

11. Which age group is known as the neonates?
a) Up to 2 months
b) Up to 2 years
c) Up to 6 months
d) Up to 1 year
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Babies below the age of 2 months are called as neonates. Their microsomal enzymes are not fully developed. Thus takes much longer time to metabolize drugs.

12. Which age group metabolizes drugs faster than the adults?
a) Between 1-12 year
b) Between 1-15 year
c) Between 6-12 year
d) Between 12-18 year
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Children and older infant of the age group 1-12 year metabolize several drugs much more rapidly than adults. The rate of metabolism reaches a maximum somewhere between 6 months to 12 years of age. As a result, they require large mg/kg doses in comparison to adults.

13. Fat-free diet depresses cytochrome P-450 level.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: A fat-free diet decreases the phospholipid content. Phospholipids are important components of microsomes. When these become deficient, the cytochrome p-450 levels decrease.
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14. Maternal drug metabolizing ability increases in the later stage of pregnancy.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Maternal drug metabolizing ability decreases in the later stage of pregnancy. Due to high levels of steroid hormones in circulation during pregnancy, in women, the metabolism of promazine and pethidine decreases. Thus, maternal drug metabolizing ability decreases.

15. Enzyme activity is maximum during the early morning.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: By research, it has been observed that the enzyme activity is maximum during the early morning and minimum during the late afternoon. This also corresponds to high and low serum levels of corticosterone.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn