This set of Drug Biotechnology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Types of Prodrugs”.
1. What is a prodrug?
a) An excipient which helps in creating the environment for the drug-dissolving
b) Chemically drug precursor
c) Excipient of drug formulation
d) A drug which is used by professionals
Explanation: A prodrug is a chemically manufactured inert drug precursor which in biotransformation will give the pharmacologically active drug compound. Prodrugs are inactive when given as a dosage, but upon biotransformation gives active metabolites.
Explanation: This type of prodrug where the active ingredient and inert drug is bonded by the covalent bond comes under carrier-linked prodrug. They are generally esters or amide. These drugs and modified their lipophilicity to a great extent because of being attached to a carrier. The active drug is released by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolytic cleavage can be chemical or enzymatic.
3. Which of the following is the correct characteristic of bio precursors/ metabolic precursors?
a) The inert carrier is attached through a chemical bond
b) There is no inert carrier
c) There is a change in pH while the formulation
d) The active drug is converted to its inert form chemically
Explanation: Bioprecursors/ metabolic precursors are obtained after chemical modification of the active drug. They are made to form inert molecules and thus they do not need a carrier. This moiety has the same lipophilicity as the parent drug.
4. “Cascade lantentiation” concept takes into account which kind of prodrugs?
a) Mixed type prodrugs
d) Carrier linked prodrugs
Explanation: In cases, when the drug has to be formulated in different other ways such as ophthalmic, parenteral, oral liquid, etc. The prodrugs are further derivative to a form where only enzymatic conversion to the prodrug has to be done before the later can be cleaved to give the active product.
5. Prodrugs with two active compounds are known as ___________
a) Mixed type prodrugs
d) Mutual prodrug
Explanation: Pro-drugs comprising of 2 pharmacologically active agents coupled together to form a single product. It is made such that on acts as a carrier or other. Bioprecursors/ metabolic precursors are obtained after chemical modification of the active drug. The prodrugs are further derivative to a form where only enzymatic conversion to the prodrug has to be done before the later can be cleaved to give the active product are pro-prodrugs.
6. Which of the following is not a characteristic of ideal prodrug?
a) Should rapidly transform, chemically and enzymatically forming the active product
b) Should have intrinsic pharmacological activity
c) The vapour pressure should be less and evaporate easily
d) Apart from an active product, other metabolic fragments should be nontoxic
Explanation: If the vapour pressure of any drug is more if will get converted into gaseous form and thus through exhalation it will be expelled out of the body. The characteristics of an ideal prodrug are, it should rapidly transform, chemically and enzymatically forming the active product, should have intrinsic pharmacological activity, the vapour pressure should be less and evaporate easily, and apart from an active product other metabolic fragments should be non-toxic.
7. Which is the earliest discovered prodrug?
d) Salicylic acid
Explanation: Prontosil is the prodrug for the antibacterial agent sulfanamide in the body. It was the earliest prodrug discovered accidentally. Aspirin is the prodrug of salicylic acid used to reduce gastric irritation.
8. Which of the following is an example of mutual prodrug?
a) Prontosil is the prodrug for sulfanamide
b) Aspirin is the prodrug of salicylic acid
c) Benorylate prodrug for NSAIDs and paracetamol
d) Diesters pro-prodrug for pilocarpic acid
Explanation: Mutual prodrug is pro-drugs comprising of 2 pharmacologically active agents coupled together to form a single product. Thus, benorylate prodrug for NSAIDs and paracetamol is an example of mutual prodrug.
9. The principle of prodrug design is known as chemical formulation.
Explanation: In the creation of prodrug, insufficiencies of a drug are corrected through chemical conversion or multiple chemical changes. Due to these chemical conversions which are done to make the drug to become an acceptable form prodrug designing is also known as chemical formulation.
10. A drug which gets bio-transformed rapidly is known as a hard drug.
Explanation: A soft drug is a biologically active compound which gets bio-transformed rapidly in vivo and starts the pharmacological activity. A hard drug is one which is resistant to biotransformation and therefore has a long half-life.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Drug and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.
To practice all areas of Drug and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.