Drug Biotechnology Questions and Answers – Diuretics – Renal Functions Pharmacotherapy

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This set of Drug Biotechnology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Diuretics – Renal Functions Pharmacotherapy”.

1. What are diuretic agents?
a) Drugs that accelerate the rate of urine formation
b) Drugs that accelerates heart rate
c) A drug that accelerates breathing rate
d) A drug that reduces heart rate
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Drugs that accelerate the rate of urine formation are known as diuretics. The result of these drugs is the removal of sodium and water since we know where sodium goes water follows. Thus, also decreases blood pressure since the volume of water decreases.
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2. Which of the following statement is false?
a) 0% to 25% of all sodium is reabsorbed into the bloodstream in the loop of Henle
b) 50% to 10% of sodium is reabsorbed in the distal tubules
c) 3% sodium is absorbed in collecting ducts
d) 50% of sodium is absorbed in the glomerulus
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: We are aware of the fact that where sodium goes water follows. 20-25% of all sodium is reabsorbed into the bloodstream in the loop of Henle. 5-10% gets reabsorbed in the distal tubes and 3% of the sodium gets reabsorbed in collecting ducts. Thus is sodium is not reabsorbed, water will also not get reabsorbed thus making water excreted as urine.

3. What is the site of action of the diuretic mannitol?
a) Proximal tubule
b) Glomerulus
c) Descending loop of Henle
d) Distal Tubule
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Osmotic diuretics work in the proximal tubule, producing an osmotic effect. It pulls water into the blood vessels and nephrons from the surrounding tissues. Osmotic diuretics reduces cellular edema, increased urine production, causing diuresis. Rapid excretion of water, sodium, and other electrolytes, as well as excretion of toxic substances from the kidney. Reduced excessive intraocular pressure.

4. What is the site of action of the diuretic Acetazolamide?
a) Proximal tubule
b) Glomerulus
c) Descending loop of Henle
d) Distal tubule
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Acetazolamide is carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, they work by inhibiting carbonic anhydrous, thus prevents the exchange of H+ ions with sodium and water. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase helps to make H+ ions available so they can be exchanged with sodium and water in the proximal tubules. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase reduces H+ ion concentration in the renal tubule, as a result, there is increased excretion of bicarbonate, sodium, water, and potassium resorption of water is decreased and urine volume is increased.

5. What is the site of action of the loop diuretics?
a) Proximal tubule
b) Glomerulus
c) Ascending loop of Henle
d) Distal tubule
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Loop diuretics act on the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to inhibit sodium and chloride resorption. These also increase renal prostaglandins, resulting in the dilation of blood vessels and reduced peripheral vascular resistance. These cause loss of water reduces blood pressure, reduced pulmonary vascular resistance, reduced systemic vascular resistance and central venous pressure.
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6. What is the site of action of the diuretic thiazide diuretics?
a) Proximal tubule
b) Glomerulus
c) Descending loop of Henle
d) Distal tubule
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics work by inhibiting tubular resorption of sodium and chloride ions. The action primarily in the ascending loop of Henle and early distal tubule. This results in water, sodium, and chloride are excreted. Potassium is also excreted to a lesser extent and dilate the arterioles by direct relaxation, lowers peripheral vascular resistance.

7. What is the site of action of the potassium-sparing diuretics?
a) Proximal tubule
b) Glomerulus
c) Descending loop of Henle
d) Distal tubule
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Potassium-sparing diuretics work in collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules. It interferes with sodium-potassium exchange, competitively bind to aldosterone receptors, and block the resorption of sodium and water usually induced by aldosterone. Prevent potassium from being pumped into the tubule, thus preventing its secretion. Competitively block the aldosterone receptors and inhibit its action thus the excretion of sodium and water is promoted.

8. Which of the following can be treated by using Carbonic anhydrous inhibitor diuretics?
a) High altitude sickness and renal disease
b) Edema and hypercalcemia
c) Glaucoma and epilepsy
d) Glaucoma and hypercalcemia
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Carbonic anhydrous inhibitors are used with miotics to lower intraocular pressure before ocular surgery in certain cases. These are also useful in the treatment of Glaucoma, edema, epilepsy, high-altitude sickness. They work by inhibiting carbonic anhydrous, thus prevents the exchange of H+ ions with sodium and water.

9. Which of the following can be treated by using loop diuretics?
a) High altitude sickness and renal disease
b) Hypertension and hypercalcemia
c) Glaucoma and epilepsy
d) Glaucoma and hypercalcemia
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Loop diuretics act directly on the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to inhibit sodium and chloride resorption. Edema associated with hepatic or renal disease, control of hypertension, increase renal excretion of calcium in patients with hypercalcemia, useful when rapid diuresis is desired because of the rapid onset of action.
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10. Which of the following can be treated by using thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics?
a) High altitude sickness and renal disease
b) Hypercalcemia
c) Hepatic cirrhosis
d) Glaucoma and hypercalcemia
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are mostly prescribed for hypertension, idiopathic hypercalciuria, and treatment of hepatic cirrhosis. Loop diuretics act directly on the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to inhibit sodium and chloride resorption. Carbonic anhydrous inhibitors are used with miotics to lower intraocular pressure before ocular surgery in certain cases.

11. Which of the following will be used for a severe head injury?
a) Osmotic diuretics
b) Loop diuretics
c) Carbonic anhydrous inhibitor diuretics
d) Potassium-sparing diuretics
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Osmotic diuretics such as mannitol pull water into the blood vessels and nephrons from the surrounding tissues, reduces cellular edema, increase urine production causing diuresis, and reduces excessive intraocular pressure. Loop diuretics act directly on the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to inhibit sodium and chloride resorption.

12. Which of the following diuretics should be used for hypercalcemia patients?
a) Osmotic diuretics
b) Loop diuretics
c) Carbonic anhydrous inhibitor diuretics
d) Potassium-sparing diuretics
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: For hypercalcemia patients we can use loop diuretics. Loop diuretics act directly on the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to inhibit sodium and chloride resorption. Edema associated with hepatic or renal disease, control of hypertension, increase renal excretion of calcium in patients with hypercalcemia, useful when rapid diuresis is desired because of the rapid onset of action.

13. Which of the following diuretics will you use when you have to have a rapid diuresis?
a) Osmotic diuretics
b) Loop diuretics
c) Carbonic anhydrous inhibitor diuretics
d) Potassium-sparing diuretics
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Loop diuretics act directly on the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to inhibit sodium and chloride resorption and provides with rapid diuresis. Edema associated with hepatic or renal disease, control of hypertension, increase renal excretion of calcium in patients with hypercalcemia, useful when rapid diuresis is desired because of the rapid onset of action.
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14. Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics pull water into the blood vessel from the surrounding tissues.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Osmotic diuretics such as mannitol pull water into the blood vessels and nephrons from the surrounding tissues, reduces cellular edema, increase urine production causing diuresis. That is why we can use osmotic diuretics during severe head injury. Pulling water from the surrounding blood vessels is not a function of thiazide like diuretics.

15. Mannitol inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors inhibit carbonic anhydrous, thus prevents the exchange of H+ ions with sodium and water. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase helps to make H+ ions available so they can be exchanged with sodium and water in the proximal tubules. Whereas osmotic diuretics such as mannitol pull water into the blood vessels and nephrons from the surrounding tissues, reduces cellular edema, increase urine production causing diuresis. The working of both the drugs are different but both of them helps in decreasing the fluid content.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Drug and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn