Drug Biotechnology Questions and Answers – Drugs Biotransformation – Phase 1 Reactions -1

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This set of Drug Biotechnology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Drugs Biotransformation – Phase 1 Reactions -1”.

1. Biotransformation of drugs is defined as the conversion from one physical form to another.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Biotransformation of drugs is the conversion of drugs from one chemical form to another. The term is used with metabolism. The chemical changes are usually affected by enzymatically in the body. For example conversion of penicillin to penicilloic acid by bacterial penicillinase.
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2. What are xenobiotics?
a) Another form of antibiotics
b) A form of nutrient
c) Nutrients which kill the gut harmful microbes
d) Anything that is not nutrients and enters the body through different routes
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: All chemical substances that are not nutrients for the body and enter the body through different routes like inhalation, ingestion, absorption, etc. are known as xenobiotics. Drugs are also known as xenobiotics.

3. The drug biotransformation is a detoxification process.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The body’s metabolic system does not allow any drug to accumulate or aggregate inside the body. Water soluble agents are excreted via urination. The metabolic system transforms the water-insoluble drugs to polar and so that it can easily be urinated.

4. What is the active form of salicylic acid?
a) Sialic acid
b) Salic acid
c) Salicylic acid
d) Salicycle acid
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The salicylic acid is given to a patient on in its inactive form. Through metabolism, this inactive salicylic acid is converted into its active form of Salicylic acid.

5. What is the inactive form of Codeine?
a) Codene
b) Codane
c) Morphine
d) Poppy
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The codeine is given to a patient on in its inactive form. Through metabolism, this inactive codeine is converted into its active form morphine.
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6. What are soft drugs?
a) Drugs given to babies
b) Chemical drugs which are already found in the body
c) Nutrients which kill the gut harmful microbes
d) Anything that is not nutrients and enters the body through different routes
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Soft drugs are natural endogenous substances which are already present in the body. Such as neurotransmitters (dopamine, GABA, epinephrine, norepinephrine), steroids (oxytocin, oestrogen, progesterone), insulin. The body is already programmed to metabolize them and excrete out. Thus these drugs when used are rapidly inactivated.

7. Which of the following is the correct decreasing order of drug metabolism?
a) Liver > lungs > kidneys > intestine > placenta > skin > adrenals
b) Liver > lungs > kidneys > intestine > adrenals > placenta > skin
c) Liver > kidneys > lungs > intestine > placenta > adrenals > skin
d) Liver > lungs > intestine > kidneys > placenta > adrenals > skin
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Liver is the primary site for metabolism. Of most of the drugs. It is because it has most of the enzymes in it that to in large numbers. Metabolism by other organs is very less because they have very low quantity of enzymes present in them. Thus the order is liver > lungs > kidneys > intestine > placenta > adrenals > skin.

8. The enzymes are divided into two categories, these are _______ and ____________
a) Acidic drug metabolizing and basic drug metabolizing
b) Present in the liver and not present in the liver
c) Microsomal and non-microsomal
d) There is no such division
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The enzymes are divided into 2 categories namely microsomal and non-microsomal. Microsomal enzymes catalyse the majority of the drug biotransformation reactions. The large variety of microsomal enzymes catalyse a number of oxidative, reductive and hydrolytic reactions.

9. Microsome are selective to ____________
a) Water-soluble drugs
b) Lipid soluble drugs
c) Acidic drugs
d) Basic drugs
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The intact Lipoidal membrane of the microsome is essential for its selectivity towards lipid soluble substrates. The lipid soluble substrate is bio transformed into water-soluble metabolite by the microsomal enzymes and thus can easily excrete out.
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10. Where are non-microsomal enzymes present?
a) In the Golgi apparatus
b) Inside lysosomes
c) In the cytoplasm in soluble form
d) In oxysomes
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Non-microsomal enzymes include those that are present in soluble form in the cytoplasm and those attached to the mitochondria but not to the endoplasmic reticulum. These enzymes are non-specifically catalysing few oxidative reactions, the number of reductive reactions and hydrolytic reactions.

11. Phase 1 reactions are also known as a synthetic reaction.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Phase I reactions include introducing or removing of –OH, -COOH, -NH2 and –SH. This phase I reactions are also known as functionalization reactions. These transformations are also known as a synthetic reaction.

12. Following are the Phase I reactions except ____________
a) Oxidative reactions
b) Hydrolytic reactions
c) Reductive reactions
d) Sulphide reactions
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Phase I reactions precedes phase II reactions. These reactions are an oxidative reaction, hydrolytic reactions, and reductive reactions. Phase I reactions include introducing or removing of –OH, -COOH, -NH2 and –SH. This phase I reactions are also known as functionalization reactions.

13. What are the names of the 3 protein involve in multienzyme mixed-function oxidase system, located in the endoplasmic reticulum?
a) Heme protein, flavoprotein, phosphatidylcholine
b) Heme protein, flavoprotein, retinal protein
c) Heme protein, retinal protein, phosphatidylcholine
d) Retinal protein, flavoprotein, phosphatidylcholine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Heme protein helps in oxidizing the substrate, flavoprotein functions as an electron carrier and catalyses the reduction of cytochrome 450 to ferrous form, phosphatidylcholine functions to facilitate electron transfer from NADPH to cytochrome 450.
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14. What is the function of Phosphatidylcholine in multienzyme mixed-function oxidase system, located in the endoplasmic reticulum?
a) Oxidising the substrate
b) Reducing the substrate
c) Facilitate electron transfer from NADPH to cytochrome 450
d) Facilitate electron transfer from cytochrome 450 to NADPH
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Phosphatidylcholine has choline as a head group. These are major components of the cell membrane. Phosphatidylcholine is a heat stable lipid component which functions to facilitate electron transfer from NADPH to cytochrome 450.

15. What is the function of a flavoprotein, located in the endoplasmic reticulum?
a) Oxidising the substrate
b) Reducing the cytochrome-450 to the ferrous form
c) Facilitate electron transfer from NADPH to cytochrome 450
d) Facilitate electron transfer from cytochrome 450 to NADPH
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Flavoprotein functions as an electron carrier and catalyses the reduction of cytochrome 450 to ferrous form by transferring an electron from NADPH. Flavoprotein in multienzyme mixed-function oxidase system.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Drug and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.

To practice all areas of Drug and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn