This set of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Questions and Answers for Experienced people focuses on “Immunological Preparations – Classification of Vaccines – 2”.
1. Who developed the first vaccine?
Explanation: Edward Jenner introduced small pox which was the first successful vaccine for smallpox in the year 1796. He injected cowpox virus into a boy and then he found out he has become immune to smallpox. That is how the smallpox vaccine was invented.
2. What causes smallpox?
Explanation: Small pox was an infectious disease. It was caused by one or two variants of Variola major and Variola minor. It was a major disease in earlier days. But due to the invention of Edward Jenner and other recent developments, it was completely wiped out from the country.
3. Vaccines are used in all the forms, except _________
a) Live-attenuated vaccines
b) Inactivated vaccines
c) Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines
d) Attenuated, inactivated, portions of protein, polysaccharides
Explanation: There are 3 main types of vaccine: live-attenuated vaccines; inactivated vaccines; and subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines. The vaccine is something which will activate the immune system up to the memory level. So that memory cells are produced in the body to protect from any further infection.
4. Which vaccine among these is used in its inactivated form?
Explanation: Influenza vaccine is inactivated virus; measles, mumps, and chicken pox vaccines are live- attenuated viruses. Inactivated viruses are inactive to cause any diseases. They have their cell membrane proteins intact.
5. What is the key information required to develop a vaccine?
a) Molecular pathogenicity of the disease
b) Molecular pathogenicity of the disease-causing organism
c) Unique immunologic response from the host
d) Molecular pathogenicity of the disease and the disease-causing organism
Explanation: Key information required to develop a vaccine are: molecular pathogenicity of the disease or disease-causing organism (50%) and unique immunologic response from host (50%). The unique immunologic response from the host will decide the dosage form for the particular patient.
6. Who sets the rules for clinical trials?
a) NHS- National Health Service
b) NIH- National Institute of Health
c) NDA- New Drug Administration
d) FDA- Food and Drug Administration
Explanation: Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sets rules for the three phases of clinical trials to ensure the safety of the volunteers. Every researcher or manufacturer has to get a drug approved by the FDA. FDA sets rules for the manufacturing guidelines.
7. The BCG vaccine was developed by ___________ and ____________
a) Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin
b) Marry Currie and Perry Currie
c) Albert Einstein
d) Robert Hook
Explanation: The BCG vaccine was developed by French bacteriologists Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin. They named the vaccine or the product Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, or BCG.
8. A recombinant engineered vaccine is “direct manipulation of genes of weakened or killed pathogen for stimulating antibody production or cellular immunity against the pathogen but is incapable of causing severe infection”.
Explanation: A manipulation of genes of a weakened or killed pathogen, such as bacteria or virus that upon administration to a human body or any other animal will stimulate antibody production or cellular immunity against the pathogen. But this will be incapable of causing any severe disease or infection are known as recombinant engineered vaccines.
9. Recombinant engineered vaccines are being extensively explored to eradicate the following factors, except _________
a) Infectious diseases
c) Allergies and cancers
d) Mental illness
Explanation: Recombinant engineered vaccines are being extensively explored, especially to eradicate infectious diseases, allergies, and cancers. Recombinant vaccines are manufactured by the recombinant DNA process. The vaccine will be able to provide immunogenicity to more diseases.
10. __________ demonstrated a plasmid-induced immune response using mice by inoculating with a plasmid expressing human growth hormone which elicited antibodies instead of faltering growth.
a) Stephen Johnston
b) Karry Mullis
c) Robert Hook
d) Alexander Fleming
Explanation: Stephen Johnston’s group saw that when mice are inoculated with plasmid DNA encoding human growth hormone, the mice is able to produce antibodies against this hormone. It was the first demonstration of a plasmid-induced immune response was when mice inoculated with a plasmid expressing human growth hormone elicited antibodies instead of faltering growth.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Drug and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology.
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