This set of Energy & Environment Management Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Kyoto Protocol and Montreal Protocol”.
1. Based on what the Kyoto Protocol set emission reduction targets for the group of greenhouse gases?
a) Hydrogen equivalents
b) Carbon dioxide equivalents
c) Oxygen equivalents
d) Nitrogen equivalents
Explanation: The Kyoto Protocol set emission reduction targets for a group of greenhouse gases including hydrofluorocarbons based on their carbon dioxide equivalents. Carbon dioxide is one of the highly emitted gases.
2. Under how many agreements fluorochemicals are regulated?
Explanation: Fluorochemicals are regulated under two international agreements. Those agreements are the Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol. Both these agreements work towards the better climatic conditions of the planet.
3. With minor exception, which of the following have been phased out completely globally?
a) Carbon dioxide
b) Carbon monoxide
d) Nitrogen dioxide
Explanation: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) is one of the ozone depleting substances. Release of chlorofluorocarbons leads to the damage of the ozone layer. With a very minor exception, CFCs have been phased out globally.
4. For what production and consumption phase out schedules the Montreal Protocol has established?
a) Greenhouse emitting gases
b) Global warming emitting gases
c) Ozone layer depleting substances
d) Water level increasing substances
Explanation: The Montreal Protocol has established production and consumption phase out schedules for chlorofluorocarbons, hydro chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone layer depleting substances and protecting ozone.
5. How can be determined carbon dioxide equivalents?
a) By multiplying the quantity of the gas by its global warming potential
b) By multiplying the quantity of the gas by its pressure
c) By multiplying the quantity of the water by its global warming potential
d) By multiplying the quantity of the gas by its global cooling potential
Explanation: Based on the carbon dioxide equivalents the Kyoto Protocol set emission reduction targets. The carbon dioxide equivalent of a gas is determined by multiplying the quantity of the gas by its global warming potential.
6. The Montreal Protocol is less known for its role in climate protection.
Explanation: The Montreal Protocol is well known for protecting stratospheric ozone. But it is less known for its role in climate protection. The reason for this is, the Kyoto Protocol aims to the reduction of green house gas while the Montreal protocol works on the ozone layer depleting gases.
7. When did the Kyoto Protocol entered into force?
Explanation: The Kyoto Protocol Is an international treaty that commits to reducing greenhouse gas emission. It was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, On December 11, 1997. It later on February 16, 2005 it entered into forces.
8. When is the first commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol expired?
Explanation: The first commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol expired on 31 December 2012 which came into effective force from 16 February 2005. Kyoto Protocol Extension was drafted on December 8, 2012. This extension is expired in 2020.
9. When did the Montreal Protocol entered into force?
Explanation: The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty on substances that depleting the ozone layer and it is designed to protect the ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol was agreed on 16 September 187 and entered into force on 1 January 1989.
10. What are the substances present in the ozone layer depleting substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol?
a) Either chlorine or bromine
b) Either carbon or nitrogen
c) Either chlorine or carbon
d) Either carbon or bromine
Explanation: All the ozone layer depleting substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol contain either chlorine or bromine. Some ozone depleting substances are not yet controlled by the Montreal Protocol for example nitrous oxide.
11. Why hydrofluorocarbons are no harm to the ozone layer?
a) Because they contain chlorine
b) Because they do not contain chlorine
c) Because they contain carbon
d) Because they contain nitrogen
Explanation: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are not harm to the ozone layer because unlike CFCs they do not contain chlorine in it. But they are greenhouse gases with a high global warming potential. Hence through Montreal Protocol fast phase down of high global warming potential HFCs are taking into action.
12. Which Amendment was agreed to phase down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol?
a) Paris Amendment
b) New York Amendment
c) Delhi Amendment
d) Kigali Amendment
Explanation: The parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted the Kigali Amendment in October 2016 in Kigali. This Amendment agreed the parties to phase down HFCs production and consumption under the Montreal Protocol.
13. Which one of the following is the objective of Kyoto Protocol?
a) Stabilization and reconstruction of greenhouse gases
b) Protecting the ozone layer from depletion
c) Reducing the CFCs and HFCs usage
d) Increasing the greenhouse gases
Explanation: One of the main objectives of the Kyoto Protocol is the stabilization and reconstruction of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent damages causing to the climate.
14. The Montreal Protocol is the successful climate agreement.
Explanation: The Montreal Protocol has resulted in 99$ phase-out of CFCs and other harmful ozone depleting substances. Kigali Amendment contributes to avoiding 0.5 degree Celsius of globally warming through reducing HFCs that are powerful global warming potentials.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Energy & Environment Management.
To practice all areas of Energy & Environment Management, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.