This set of Energy & Environment Management Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Species and Ecosystem Diversity”.
Explanation: Species means discrete groups of organisms of the same kind. Species diversity is the diversity between different species. The sum of varieties of all living organisms at the species level is known as species diversity.
2. Approximately, how many species are assigned with scientific names?
a) Around 1 million
b) Around 1.5 million
c) Around 2 million
d) Around 2.5 million
Explanation: Scientific names are very important for identifying the characteristics of any species. The total number of species living on earth is approximately more than 2 million. However, only around 1.5 million are found and assigned scientific names.
3. What is the significance of spices diversity?
a) Species interacts with its environment and thus perform certain functions
b) Species minimize interaction with its environment and thus perform certain functions
c) Species never interacts with environment
d) Though species interacts with environment it do no perform any functions
Explanation: The species interacts with its environment and thus performs certain functions. In a natural state, these interactions and consequently the system is in balance. The loss of one species affects many other species and causes imbalance.
4. How do human activities affect species diversity?
a) Due to over-exploitation of humans
b) Due to conserving the forests
c) Due to decline in population growth in humans
d) Due to decrease in the pollution causing by industries
Explanation: Over-exploitation is one of the main threats to species diversity. They cause a gradual loss of species on local, regional and global levels. Additionally, over population and habitat conservation destroys natural balance.
5. How many components are there in species diversity?
Explanation: There are three components in species diversity. They are species richness, taxonomic diversity and species evenness. Species richness is a simple count of species, taxonomic diversity is the genetic relationship between different groups of species, and species evenness quantifies how equal the abundances of the species.
Explanation: We can calculate species diversity. Species diversity in a dataset can be calculated by first taking the weighted average of species proportional abundances in the dataset, and then taking the inverse of this.
7. How will increasing species diversity affect ecosystem?
a) It increase the efficiency and productivity of an ecosystem
b) It increase only the efficiency and not productivity of an ecosystem
c) It do not increase the efficiency and productivity of an ecosystem
d) It only increase the productivity of an ecosystem
Explanation: By increasing species diversity in an ecosystem, both the efficiency and the productivity of an ecosystem will increase. A greater species richness and diversity may cause ecosystems to function more efficiently and productively by making more resources available for other species.
8. How many types of species are there?
Explanation: There are three types of species. The three types of species are endemic species, exotic species and cosmopolitan species. Cosmopolitan distributions can be observed both in extinct and extant species.
9. What is called for the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise?
Explanation: Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. There are four modes in speciation namely, a) Allopatric, Parapatric, Peripatric and Sympatric. Peripatric means formation of new species through evolution.
10. Which is the largest scale of biodiversity?
a) Species diversity
b) Genetic diversity
c) Cell diversity
d) Ecological diversity
Explanation: Ecological diversity is the largest scale of biodiversity. It includes the variation in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Ecological diversity is the variation in the ecosystems found in a region in ecosystems over the whole planet.
11. Which one of the following diversity boosts the availability of oxygen?
a) Species diversity
b) Ecosystem diversity
c) Genetic diversity
d) Cell diversity
Explanation: Ecosystem diversity boosts the availability of oxygen through the process of photosynthesis amongst plant organisms. Since Ecosystem diversity provide many useful things it is significant to human existence.
Explanation: River ecosystem is an example of Ecosystem diversity. Rivers include fish, mussels, aquatic insects and a variety of planets. Ecosystem diversity explains the interaction between living organisms and physical environment in an ecosystem.
13. Apart from reduction of gene flow, what is the one more reason for speciation?
a) Morphological insulation
b) Geographical isolation
c) Area distribution
Explanation: Geographic isolation is one of the reasons for speciation. Due to geographic isolation populations were prevented from interbreeding. Because of geographic isolation rivers change course, mountains rise, continents drift, organisms migrate.
14. State true or false. Forests are the only example for Ecosystem diversity.
Explanation: Forests are one of the examples for Ecosystem diversity and it is not the only example for Ecosystem diversity. Apart from forests, deserts, marine ecosystem, tundra, coral reefs, old growth forests and many more examples are there for Ecosystem diversity.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Energy & Environment Management.
To practice all areas of Energy & Environment Management, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.