# Aircraft Design Questions and Answers – Crew Station

This set of Aircraft Design Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Crew Station”.

1. Crew station design is affected by?
a) Vision requirements
b) Lift only
c) Weight effects only
d) Drag required only

Explanation: Vision requirements are one of the primary factor affecting overall crew station or cockpit design. Lift affects aerodynamics of the aircraft. Weight will affect lift requirements.

2. Which of the following is correct?
a) Vision requirements will be used to determine location of cockpit
b) Crew station design is based on lift only
c) Cockpit design is not affected by visual requirements
d) Weight will be always same as lift

Explanation: Unobstructed outside vision will be used to evaluate design of cockpit. Vision requirements will affect the location of cockpit as well. Weight is not always same as lift.

3. Why some slope is provided at the nose of an aircraft?
a) To provide unobstructed runway vision
b) To provide obstruction to vision
c) Only to increase lift
d) Only to reduce weight

Explanation: A cockpit design is highly affected by pilot’s vision requirements. The Pilot must be able to view the runway when they are on final approach. Hence, to provide unobstructed runway vision nose of the a/c must slope away from the eye of pilot.

4. Which of the following is incorrect?
a) Cockpit is always located directly above the wing
b) Lofting is mathematical model for skin
c) Conceptual design is first phase of the design process
d) Cockpit design is affected by visual requirements of pilot

Explanation: Cockpit is not always located at the wing. Lofting is done to provide mathematical model of our aircraft. Conceptual design is the first phase of aircraft design process. In conceptual design we will be dealing with some fundamental principles of design of an aircraft.

5. Over- side vision requirements prevent locating the cockpit directly above wings.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Over-side vision requirements will not let us to locate the cockpit directly above wings. Location of cockpit is highly influenced by vision requirements. Safety criteria is also used to estimating and placing the cockpit.

6. Which range of pilot size are used to design a typical military aircraft?
a) Size from 5th to 95th percentile for male pilots
b) Size from 0th to 2nd percentile
c) Size of 3rd percentile always
d) Size doesn’t concern of design

Explanation: Typically, cockpit of an aircraft is designed for particular size range of pilot. A typical military aircraft has cockpit design which can accommodate 5th to 95th percentile of male pilots.

7. Determine approximate value of approach angle if, overnose angle is 20° and approach speed is 100knots.
a) 13°
b) 5°
c) 2°
d) 3°

Explanation: Given, overnose angle O = 20°, approach speed V = 200knots.
Now, Approach angle A is given by,
A = O – 0.07*V = 20 – 0.07*200 = 13°.

8. Following diagram represents ____

a) typical fighter cockpit
b) typical glider
c) typical empennage
d) wing layout

Explanation: A typical fighter cockpit is shown in the diagram. The above diagram is representing a typical cockpit designed for 95th percentile pilot. Glider is type of aircraft. The empennage is tail section of aircraft. Wing layout is based on its planform shape.

9. Seat reference point is the point where?
a) Seat pan meets the back
c) Lift is concentrated
d) Weight is carried out in cockpit

Explanation: The point at where seat pan meets back is termed as seat reference point. It can be used to define fundamental terms in cockpit design. Legroom requirement, height etc. are using seat reference point as a reference.

10. Overnose angle is defined based on?
a) Pilot’s eye point
b) Seat reference point
c) Seat length
d) CG of aircraft

Explanation: Pilot’s eye point is used to define the overnose angle. Grazing angle, pilot’s head clearance is also defined by using pilot’s eye point. Seat reference point can be used to provide reference to legroom.

11. Higher seat back angle (>60°) will result in __________
a) improvement to withstand high- g loads
b) drag increment
c) outside vision improvement
d) maximum drag

Explanation: Typically, seat back angle can vary from 12° to 40°. However, some more advanced studies consider seat back angle of up to 70-75 degrees. This is much higher seat back angle will improve pilot’s ability to withstand high g turns.

12. Overnose vision angle will be same for all aircrafts.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: No, overnose angle is not always same for all aircrafts. Typically, military aircraft requires overnose of 17 degree for transport or bomber aircraft. However, a fighter will have overnose vision of 10-15 degrees.

13. Which of the following is correct?
a) Overnose angle = approach angle + 0.07*approach speed (in knots)
b) Overnose angle = (approach angle)2 + 7*approach speed (in knots)
c) Overnose angle = (approach angle)2
d) Approach angle = (Overnose angle)2

Explanation: Correct relation between overnose angle and approach angle is given by, Overnose angle = approach angle + 0.07*approach speed (in knots). This equation can be used only when initial layout is completed and we know the exact location of pilot’s eye point and main landing gear.

14. A typical a/c has approach speed of 100 knots. If approach angle is 10° then, estimate value of overnose angle.
a) 17°
b) 25°
c) 10°
d) 40°

Explanation: Given, approach speed V=100knots, approach angle a=10°.
Now, overnose angle = a+0.07*V = 10 + 0.07*100 = 17°.

15. What is the grazing angle?
a) Smallest angle between pilot’s line of vision and the cockpit windscreen
b) Same as over nose angle
c) Seat back angle
d) Seat reference angle

Explanation: The transparency grazing angle is defined as the smallest angle between pilot’s line of vision and the cockpit windscreen. It is not same as the overnose angle. Seat reference point is defined as the point where seat pan meets back.

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