This set of Pavement Design Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Highway Maintenance – Non Destructive Structural Evaluation”.
1. The type of testing to be performed for the evaluation is not determined by ______
a) Urgency of design
b) Type of highway
c) Importance of highway
d) Availability of tools
Explanation: The type of testing to be conducted to determine the defects in the pavement depends on the urgency of the design, value of the project, importance of highways and the availability of tools. It can be performed on any type of highways.
2. What does FWD stand for?
a) Falling Weight Device
b) Free Weight Device
c) Falling Weight Deflectometer
d) Free Weight Deflectometer
Explanation: FWD stands for Falling Weight Deflectometer. It is a tool that is used to evaluate the structural quality of the pavement. It is a trailer device towed behind another vehicle.
3. ______ data is necessary to be collected while carrying out the FWD test on flexible pavements.
Explanation: Since the flexible pavements are subjected to temperature changes and the modulus of bituminous materials is dependent on temperature, the temperature data is necessary to be collected while performing FWD test.
4. How many types of GPR testing are possible?
Explanation: GPR stands for Ground Penetrating Radar. There are two types of testing possible. One is the air-coupled GPR and the other is ground-coupled GPR. Air coupled GPR is considered to be more beneficial than ground-coupled GPR.
5. The DCP test requires the drilling of a small pilot hole into the bound layers of the pavement.
Explanation: DCP stands for Dynamic Cone Penetrometer and it is a secondary tool used for structural evaluation of pavement. The test does require the drilling of a small hole through the bound pavement layers in order to understand the in-situ penetration resistance.
6. What does SPA stand for?
a) Seismic Pavement Adapter
b) Seismic Pavement Analyser
c) Sound Pavement Adapter
d) Sound Pavement Analyser
Explanation: Seismic Pavement Analyser is a device that is used to test the in-situ properties of the pavement materials. There are many devices in the SPA series. These devices generate seismic waveforms in the material being tested.
7. The dynamic cone penetrometer is a ______ device.
Explanation: The dynamic cone penetrometer is a stationary device that is driven into the pavement layer and testing is carried out. It contains an 8 kg hammer for free fall, so it is not lightweight. The DCP is a long device and not a wide one. It is definitely portable as it consists of a two-piece rod system.
8. The air-coupled GPR contains an antenna mounted ______ of the vehicle.
b) On top
d) In front
Explanation: The air-coupled GPR has a data acquisition boom-mounted antenna, which projects out from the front of the vehicle. It is suspended just a few meters above the surface of the road. This is done so to allow the uninterrupted collection of data even in high-speed highways.
9. Which of the below SPA devices is used in the field?
b) Resonant column
d) Dirt SPA
Explanation: There are two devices that are used in the field – DSPA and PSPA, i.e. Dirt SPA and Portable SPA. The devices that are not used in the field and are employed to find material properties in the laboratory are V-meter and resonant column.
10. For a project, a ______ locations are tested using the falling weight deflectometer test.
a) Minimum of 30
b) Maximum of 30
c) Minimum of 20
d) Maximum of 20
Explanation: The amount of data to be collected from any test must be predetermined to ease calculations and make the system feasible. In the falling weight deflectometer, either of the two conditions can be followed. Collect data at an interval of a maximum of 160 meters or a minimum of 30 test locations.
11. The test results from the DCP test cannot be related to which of the below?
c) In-situ density
d) Resilient modulus
Explanation: The result obtained from carrying out the DCP test is the resistance to penetration and is expressed as DCP Penetration Index or DPI. This can be related to the CBR value, resilient modulus, in-situ density and the bearing capacity.
12. ______ is a truck-mounted system that measures the induced deflection on the pavement surface.
Explanation: TPAD is a truck-mounted system and it expanded as the Total Pavement Acceptance Device. It consists of a rolling deflectometer that keeps applying load on the surface that is large and cyclic in nature. The deflections hence induced are measured.
13. In GPR evaluation method, what property is used to correlate to the material properties of pavement?
Explanation: The GPR method of evaluation of the pavement uses the dielectric property to correlate to the material properties like density and moisture content of the existing pavement layer. It sends pulses of radar energy into the pavement layers and captures the reflections returning after hitting the pavement. The amount of energy returned and the time delay between reflections is used to find the dielectric constant.
14. The V-meter is an ultrasonic laboratory device that is used to find the viscosity of the flexible pavement surface.
Explanation: The V-meter is an ultrasonic laboratory device that performs tests on hot mix asphalt briquettes. It is a type of laboratory SPA device. This device is primarily used to find the seismic modulus of the material.
15. Which of the facts about ground-coupled GPR is not correct?
a) Operates at high frequency
b) Can locate sink holes
c) Poor near surface resolution
d) Can penetrate to a deeper extent
Explanation: The ground-coupled GPR operates at a lower frequency than the air-coupled GPR. Therefore, it is able to penetrate to greater depths. The low-frequency antenna makes it difficult to get a good quality resolution for near surface evaluation. It is useful in locating sink holes, pipelines, buried underground objects and other anomalies deep down the pavement surface.
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