# Pavement Design Questions and Answers – Highway Maintenance – Non Destructive Functional Evaluation

This set of Pavement Design Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Highway Maintenance – Non Destructive Functional Evaluation”.

1. For non-destructive testing, the data collected from the field is ______
a) Objective
b) Subjective
c) Accurate
d) Approximate

Explanation: The data collected from the field for non-destructive testing is generally objective in nature. The data analysed and interpreted by the Engineers is subjective. The data obtained from the non-destructive testing can be accurate or approximate depending on the equipment used and other conditions.

2. What functional properties are evaluated using non-destructive testing?
a) Roughness and unevenness
b) Roughness and skid resistance
c) Unevenness and surface texture
d) Skid resistance and surface texture

Explanation: The two main functional properties that are evaluated using non-destructive testing are the roughness and skid resistance of the pavement. Unevenness is a part of roughness and surface texture also comes under the two main properties.

3. What is the name of the machine that is used to measure the roughness of the pavement?
a) Rut bar vehicle
b) Roughness meter
c) Rut meter
d) Roughness vehicle

Explanation: The roughness of the pavement can be evaluated using the rut bar vehicle. It checks the profile of the pavement for irregularities like bumps, sags and gives a measure of the roughness of the pavement.

4. The rut bar vehicle is capable of evaluating ______ profile of the pavement.
a) Transverse
b) Longitudinal
c) Transverse and longitudinal simultaneously
d) Transverse and longitudinal separately

Explanation: The rut bar vehicle or the profiler can evaluate the pavement in both transverse and longitudinal profiles. The equipment for the same is present in one vehicle and it is capable of recording the roughness in both profiles simultaneously.

5. The measurement taken in the longitudinal direction is the ______
a) Extent of cracking
b) Inertial profile of wheel path
c) Bump height
d) Rutting depth

Explanation: The inertial profile of the wheel path is tracked as the measurement for the evaluation of the longitudinal direction of the pavement. The measurement is done using two lasers, two accelerometers and a distance signal.
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6. The pavement unevenness cannot be measured using which of the below equipment?
a) Profilometer
b) Roughograph
c) Roughometer
d) Profilograph

Explanation: The unevenness of the pavement surface can be measured using unevenness indicator, profilometer, profilograph or roughometer. There is no roughograph to measure pavement unevenness. Bump integrator or unevenness integrator is an equipment that can measure unevenness and represent it on a cumulative scale to obtain unevenness index.

7. What is the term used to evaluate the skid resistance of the pavement?
a) Skid graph
b) Skid index
c) Skid factor
d) Skid score

Explanation: There is a special vehicle known as the skid truck that measures the skid resistance and records it in terms of skid score. The skid truck has a locked wheel skid trailer towed behind it. The skid score is an index value.

8. How is the testing of skid resistance carried out using the skid truck?
a) Locking right wheel of trailer periodically
b) Locking right wheel of truck periodically
c) Locking left wheel of trailer periodically
d) Locking left wheel of truck periodically

Explanation: The truck has to move throughout the pavement and its wheels cannot be locked even periodically. The wheels of the trailer are smooth treaded, there is a water spray arrangement in front of it. The measurements are done by locking the left wheel of trailer periodically while a metered amount of water is sprayed on the surface of the pavement.

9. The transverse profile is evaluated in terms of ______
a) Rut depth
b) Rut width
c) Crack depth
d) Crack width

Explanation: Rutting is the main defect that can be used to evaluate the surface of the pavement in the transverse profile. The depth of rutting is taken into account for this. There are specific sensors, ultrasonic in nature that can be used to ascertain the same.

10. The higher the skid score, lower is the skid resistance.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: A higher number of skid score indicates a higher amount of skid resistance. The testing is carried out at the speed of the vehicles, say at 80 km/h. generally, the skid score is obtained in the range of 10 to 40.

11. The pavement serviceability concept was introduced at the ______
b) IRC pavement evaluation
d) CSIR pavement evaluation

Explanation: In order to compare the relative performance of the test sections, the concept of pavement serviceability was introduced. It was done during the AASHTO road test. The present serviceability of the pavement is related to a predetermined scale, which is given by a panel of judges.

12. What is the name of the serviceability index developed using mathematical models?
a) PSR for flexible and rigid pavements
b) PSI for flexible pavement
c) PSR for rigid pavement
d) PSI for flexible and rigid pavements

Explanation: PSR was developed using the observations by experts. PSI is the method that uses mathematical models to compute and evaluate the serviceability conditions of both the flexible and rigid pavement. There are two equations that have been developed for the same.

13. What does PSR stand for?
a) Pavement Serviceability Rating
b) Present Serviceability Rating
c) Pavement Serviceability Ratio
d) Present Serviceability Ratio

Explanation: PSR stands for present serviceability rating. It is the average opinion of the panel of judges that define a predetermined scale for the pavement serviceability. This is also correlated with physical measurements like the transverse and longitudinal profile and degree of cracking, patching.

14. The bump integrator is towed by a jeep at a constant speed of ______
a) 30 km/h
b) 32 km/h
c) 35 km/h
d) 40 km/h

Explanation: The bump integrator is a trailer that is attached behind a jeep and the measurement is carried out. It has been developed by CRRI to operate at a constant speed of 32 km/h under a standard tyre pressure of 2.1 kg/cm2 along the designated wheel path.

15. What is the name of the system designed by Data Collection Ltd. to collect various data about the pavement surface?
a) RAMDAS
b) ROMDOS
c) ROMDAS
d) RAMDOS

Explanation: ROMDAS is the name of the modular system developed by Data Collection Ltd. (DCL) in order to gather data about pavement to evaluate it. It is expanded as Road Measurement Data Acquisition System. It is a low-cost modular system consisting of all necessary equipment, hardware and software needed to analyse it.

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