# Pavement Design Questions and Answers – Highway Cost – 2

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This set of Pavement Design Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Highway Cost – 2”.

1. What is the formula to find the average annual highway cost?
a) Ca=H-T-M-Cr
b) Ca=H+T-M+Cr
c) Ca=H-T+M-Cr
d) Ca=H+T+M+Cr

Explanation: The equation Ca=H-T-M-Cr is used to compute the average annual highway cost. The term H in the equation stands for the average cost for administrative works, T for the average annual highway operation cost, M for the average annual highway maintenance cost and Cr for the average annual capital cost.

2. Any new proposal made for the improvement of the highway must be justified in terms of the ______ and ______
a) Profit, loss
b) Capital, comfort
c) Cost incurred, benefit derived
d) Money, time

Explanation: It is necessary that any new proposal for the highway improvement must be justified in terms of the cost incurred and the benefits derived. It is important for the proposal to be such that there is no loss in it.

3. Which of the below is not a type of highway operation cost?
a) Vehicle operation cost
b) Equipment operation cost
c) Capital cost of the vehicle
d) Office

Explanation: Office comes under the administrative cost and not the highway operations cost. The equipment, building, vehicle operation cost including the capital cost of the vehicle are included in the highway operation cost.
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4. What happens to the tyre life as the vehicle speed increases?
a) Increases
b) Remains the same
c) Decreases
d) Not related

Explanation: The speed of the vehicle is important in determining the life of the tyre. As the speed of the vehicle increases, the wear of the tyre increases and this decreases the life of the tyre. The rate of degradation varies with the pavement surface type – good quality, uneven, unsurfaced pavement.

5. What is the range of service life generally assumed for earthwork?
a) 50 to 75 years
b) 40 to 50 years
c) 75 to 100 years
d) 20 to 30 years

Explanation: The service life of the various components of the pavement cannot be taken accurately, so they are assumed. For earthwork, the general assumption is 40 to 50 years, for major bridges it is 50 to 75 years, for the land for right of way it is 75 to 100 years and 5 to 20 years for traffic control devices.

6. The damage to vehicle property is considered under the vehicle operations cost.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The damage to vehicle property is considered under the accident cost and not under vehicle operation cost. Any sort of damage to the vehicle is considered part of an accident and it is taken under the accident cost.

7. Which of the below is not a factor that affects the road user cost?
a) Environmental
b) Vehicle
c) Supervision

Explanation: There are four factors that affect road user cost. They are the roadway factors like pavement width, profile; vehicle factors like make, engine power; traffic factors like speed, congestion and environmental factors like temperature, rainfall etc. Supervision is a factor affecting maintenance cost.

8. The benefits of savings in travel time can be assigned in terms of additional operation cost.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The savings in the travel time has a positive value to the commercial vehicles, due to the reduction in cost per km for more distance travelled. This benefit can be assigned in terms of time cost of vehicles. Additional operation cost expresses the delay or stopping the vehicle at different speeds.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Pavement Design.