# Pavement Design Questions and Answers – Bituminous Material Tests – 2

This set of Pavement Design Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Bituminous Material Tests – 2”.

1. Solubility test in bitumen is used to determine ______ of bitumen.
a) Contamination
b) Solubility
c) Dispersion
d) Composition

Explanation: Bitumen is almost completely soluble in solutions of carbon disulphide and carbon tetrachloride. So, after conducting the solubility test, if there are any undissolved particles, those would indicate the presence of impurities or the contamination of bitumen.

2. What is the standard load applied to the sample when the needle is immersed in the penetration test?
a) 100 mg
b) 100 g
c) 200 mg
d) 200 g

Explanation: The standard load for the penetration test is 100 g and it is in accordance with IS 1203:1978. The needle is allowed to penetrate the sample and it imposes a load of 100 g when it does so.

3. The formula to calculate the specific gravity of bitumen is given by $$\frac{c-a}{(b-a)-(d-c)}$$. Which of the below symbol and explanations is incorrect?
a) a – weight of specific gravity bottle
b) b – weight of specific gravity bottle filled with distilled water
c) c – weight of specific gravity bottle filled with bituminous material
d) d – weight of specific gravity bottle half filled with bituminous material and rest with water

Explanation: The symbol c indicates the weight of specific gravity bottle half filled with bituminous material. All the measurements are taken in grams. All the symbols are relative to each other and by combining them, the specific gravity can be found out.

4. What are the acceptable viscosity limits for bitumen emulsion RS-2 when tested using saybolt furol viscometer?
a) 30 – 150
b) 20 – 100
c) 50 – 300
d) 100 – 300

Explanation: The test is conducted as per IS 3117 and the viscosity limits are mentioned in IS 8887. The acceptable viscosity limits for RS-2 are 100 to 300. For RS-1, it is 20 to 100; for MS, it is 50 to 300; for SS-1, it is 20 to 100 and for SS-2, it is 30 to 150.

5. When is the bitumen sample considered cracked in the spot test?
b) Spot with uniform colour
d) Spot with varying colour

Explanation: The spot test consists of dropping two spots at different times on a filter paper. The spot spreads and if the colour is varying in the form of annular rings, darker at the centre, the bitumen sample is sadi to have cracked. It is not cracked if the spot spreads and has a uniform colour.
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6. At what speed is the specimen pulled in the ductility test?
a) 50 cm per minute vertically
b) 50 mm per minute horizontally
c) 50 mm per minute vertically
d) 50 cm per minute horizontally

Explanation: The sample is filled in the briquette mould and the end clips are pulled uniformly at 50 mm per minute in the horizontal direction. When pulled horizontally, the sample would stretch and break, giving the ductility value.

7. What is the orifice size and temperature for testing cut-back bitumen using orifice viscometer?
a) 4 mm at 25°C
b) 10 mm at 45°C
c) 4 mm at 45°C
d) 10 mm at 50°C

Explanation: The orifice viscometer can be used to test the viscosity of tar and cut-back bitumen. For testing tar, the conditions are 10 mm orifice at 35/40/45/55°C. for cut-back bitumen, the conditions are 4mm orifice at 25°C or 10 mm orifice at 25/40°C.

8. Bitumen having a higher softening point is preferred in hot climates.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Higher softening point would indicate that the bitumen sample has lower temperature susceptibility. It would take some time for the bitumen sample to be liquid. It can be used in hot climatic conditions, as higher temperature is required for bitumen to attain the liquid state.

9. The dial reading after conducting a penetration test is found to be 73. What is the penetration value of the sample?
a) 730 mm
b) 73 mm
c) 7.3 mm
d) 0.73 mm

Explanation: The dial readings are marked from zero to four hundred. Each reading is 1/10th of a millimetre i.e. if the reading is 73, the corresponding penetration value is 7.3 mm.

10. What does TSR stand for?
a) Temporary Softening Rate
b) Thermal Sensitivity Ratio
c) Terminal Strength Rate
d) Tensile Strength Ratio

Explanation: TSR of bitumen gives a measure of its resistance to moisture susceptibility.it is important to ascertain the sensitivity of bitumen to water, it affects the binding property. A higher TSR value indicates good resistance to moisture.

11. Kinematic viscosity is related to absolute viscosity by ______
a) Volume
b) Mass
c) Weight
d) Density

Explanation: Kinematic viscosity is determined by the ratio of absolute viscosity to density. The unit of kinematic viscosity is m2/s and the unit of absolute viscosity is N s/m2. Density is used to relate both the terms.

12. There are two methods to find the specific gravity of bitumen.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: As per IS 1202:1978, there are two methods to determine the specific gravity of bitumen. The first method is using a pycnometer and the second one is using a balance beam method. The descriptions for both are given in the code.

13. What is the temperature of the oven in the loss on heating test?
a) 163°C
b) 153°C
c) 110°C
d) 120°C

Explanation: As per IS 1212-1978, the oven is heated to a temperature of 163±1°C and the sample is placed in it for 5 hours. The container is heated to 100-110°C for 30 minutes, then cooled and weighed. Then the sample is poured into it.

14. What is the speed of rotation of stirrer used in flash and fire point test for cut-back bitumen?
a) 90 rpm
b) 60 rpm
c) 70 rpm
d) 50 rpm

Explanation: As per IS 1209-1978, the speed of rotation for bitumen is 60 rpm. For cut-back bitumen, it is taken as 70 to 80 rpm. All other things for conducting the test are the same for all types of bitumen.

15. What is the temperature at which softening point test has a different procedure?
a) 90°C
b) 80°C
c) 75°C
d) 65°C

Explanation: The test procedure is explained in IS 1205-1978. There is a change in the bath used when the material of softening point below 80°C and above 80°C is tested. For below 80°C, the bath used is water and for above 80°C, the bath is glycerine.

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