Pavement Design Questions and Answers – Bituminous Material Properties

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This set of Pavement Design Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Bituminous Material Properties”.

1. Tar is no longer used as a binder in pavements because of its ______
a) Durability
b) Viscosity
c) Temperature susceptibility
d) Colour change
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The binder used are bitumen and tar. The colour of tar is black, it has similar viscosity and durability to the bitumen. The problem is the high temperature susceptibility. Also, it results in the release of harmful fumes when it is heated.
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2. Which of the below is not a type of bitumen used in the construction of flexible pavements?
a) Oxidised bitumen
b) Cut-back bitumen
c) Modified bitumen
d) Bitumen emulsion
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Oxidised bitumen is prepared by oxidizing the refined bitumen. This reduces its ductility and can be used for non-road applications. It is employed for use in paints, roofing, adhesives, etc.

3. Bitumen is classified as hard and thin based on ______
a) Application
b) Source
c) Viscosity
d) Strength
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Bitumen is classified into hard and thin bitumen based on their application. Thin bitumen is used for road applications and hard bitumen is used for non-road applications like in paints, sealants, etc.

4. What does PMB stand for?
a) Polymer Modified Bitumen
b) Polymer Mix Bitumen
c) Penetration Modified Bitumen
d) Penetration Mix Bitumen
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: PMB stands for Polymer Modified Bitumen. These are produced by adding polymers like styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS), SBR, polyethylene, etc. The polymers help in modifying the properties of bitumen.

5. The paving grade bitumen is susceptible to temperature changes.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The ordinary paving grade bitumen is susceptible to temperature changes. The road pavements become softer in summer and brittle in winter. This can be solved by adding modifiers to the bitumen.
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6. The grades of bitumen used for non-road applications are called as ______ grade bitumen.
a) Market
b) Industrial
c) Oxidation
d) Commercial
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: There are two grades of bitumen based on application – one for road construction purpose and one for waterproofing structures. Paving grade bitumen is used for road construction purpose and industrial grade bitumen is used for other works.

7. Which of the below options represent the types of cut-back bitumen?
a) Rapid, medium and slow setting
b) Rapid and slow setting
c) Rapid, medium and slow curing
d) Rapid and slow curing
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Rapid, medium and slow curing are the different types of cut-back bitumen. Rapid, medium and slow setting are the types of bitumen emulsion.

8. Which type of bitumen has a volatile oil added to it?
a) Bitumen emulsion
b) Modified
c) Cut-back
d) Oxidised
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In cut-back bitumen, certain oil is added to it to reduce its viscosity. His is done to make it usable for application of tack coat. Modified bitumen has polymers added in it to improve properties. An emulsion is a liquid product and oxidized bitumen has low ductility.

9. What shows the first sign of the breakdown of bitumen emulsion?
a) Texture change
b) Colour change
c) Odour change
d) Temperature change
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Bitumen emulsion consists of a liquid base in which bitumen is dispersed as small droplets. The initial colour is chocolate brown when applied to the road. The colour changes to black and depicts the first sign of the breakdown of emulsion.
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10. Which code gives the classification of modified bitumen?
a) IS 15464
b) IS 15466
c) IS 15468
d) IS 15462
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The IS code 15462 gives details on polymer and rubber modified bitumen. IS 15464 deals with ethanol for use in automotive fuel, IS 15466 deals with rubber seals for hydraulic gate and IS 15468 deals with performance evaluation of ultrasonic thickness gauges.

11. On what basis have the classifications RC, MC and SC been further classified into?
a) Amount of solvent
b) Temperature range
c) Rate of curing
d) Initial viscosity
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The oil is added to the bitumen to reduce its viscosity and the product is called cut-back bitumen. The classifications RC, MC and SC are based on the rate of curing and their further classifications are based on the initial kinematic viscosity.

12. What does an 80/100 grade bitumen indicate?
a) Viscosity
b) Temperature
c) Penetration
d) Proportion
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Bitumen is graded in terms of penetration and viscosity. According to penetration grading, the 80/100 grading indicates that the penetration of bitumen is between 8 to 10 mm. Viscosity grading is represented by VG 10, which has penetration value in the range 8 to 10 mm.

13. Anionic bitumen emulsion is preferred in wet weather conditions.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Anionic bitumen emulsion depends on the evaporation of the liquid. So, it depends on the climatic conditions and hence it is preferred in dry weather conditions.
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14. ______ is a mixture containing bitumen and sand.
a) Binder
b) Asphalt
c) Tar
d) Filler
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Asphalt and bitumen are different in their composition. Asphalt is a mixture of bitumen (binder) and sand (mineral aggregate). Bitumen consists of hydrocarbons and is obtained by the distillation process of petroleum.

15. Which of the below abbreviation – full form pairs have been matched incorrectly?
a) HSS – high stress seal
b) SAMI – stress absorbing membrane interface
c) EVA – ethylene vinyl acetate
d) SAM – shear absorbing membrane
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: All the above abbreviations are related to modified bitumen. SAM stands for strain/stress absorbing membrane. Modified bitumen has the advantage of improved resistance to cracking as SAM and SAMI. EVA is a modifier added to bitumen. HSS is a modified bitumen that is used for sealing applications.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn