This set of Pavement Design Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Highway Maintenance – Pavement Evaluation”.
1. Pavement performance is a function of its relative ability to ______ over a period of time.
a) Withstand load
b) Maintain features
c) Serve traffic
d) Avoid cracking
Explanation: The main purpose of a pavement is to serve traffic. So, the performance of the pavement would be gauged in terms of its ability to serve traffic over a period of time. Serving traffic includes withstanding the load, providing good riding quality, etc.
2. What are the main sectors requiring evaluation?
a) Structural and non-structural
b) Functional and non-functional
c) Structural and functional
d) Structural and mechanical
Explanation: The pavement evaluation is carried out in two main sectors – structural and functional. The pavement evaluation involves the determination of structural and functional conditions of the pavement for routine checks or planned corrections.
3. Which of the below pairs of the evaluation sector and area covered under it are not matched correctly?
a) Structural – layer thickness
b) Functional – splash and spray
c) Structural – cross-slope
d) Functional – surface texture
Explanation: The areas of the pavement that are covered under the structural sector are the deflection, layer thickness and the material properties, which are concerned with the structural capacity. The functional sector is concerned with the safety and ride quality and covers the surface texture, cross-slope and splash and spray.
4. The evaluation of pavement deals with identifying the cause and doing necessary rehabilitation works.
Explanation: Pavement evaluation is a term that covers a wide variety of topics under it. The evaluation can be at two different stages. One at the stage where the possible reasons for damage to the pavement are understood and suitable rehabilitation works are carried out. The other is when the routine evaluation is done so as to develop a model that would help in prioritizing the maintenance or rehabilitation works.
5. Which of the below is not a means of evaluating an existing pavement?
a) Visual survey
c) Destructive testing
d) Performance model
Explanation: The visual survey and experience were the methods used for evaluation in the beginning. Now, three methods are used – visual survey, destructive testing and non-destructive testing. The performance model is not a method used for the evaluation of an existing pavement.
6. To have consistent and reliable visual survey results, it is necessary to ______ the ______ in the identification of distresses.
a) Increase, variability
b) Increase, evaluators
c) Decrease, variability
d) Decrease, evaluators
Explanation: There might be any number of evaluators assigned to ascertain the defects in the pavement by visual inspection. To obtain consistent and reliable results from all of them, the possible measure is to reduce the variability by providing instructions to record details in an orderly and consistent manner.
7. Depending on the type of distress, their occurrences can be noted down. Which of the below is not a term used to record the occurrence?
a) Area in square feet
b) Number per station
c) Linear feet per 100-feet station
d) Number per section
Explanation: Number per station, linear feet per 100-feet station, the number per section and the percent area are the terms used to denote the occurrences of the pavement distresses. The percentage of area that the distress covers on the pavement is measured.
8. ______ is sought to when the non-destructive testing alone doesn’t yield the required results.
a) Field inspection
b) Destructive testing
c) Performance models
d) Engineer’s analysis
Explanation: Sometimes, it happens that the characterization of the pavement materials is not obtained by conducting non-destructive testing alone. Such cases require conducting destructive testing. Field inspection, performance models are not going to be helpful. The engineer’s analysis is done in any case.
9. In what terms is the severity of rutting in flexible pavement expressed?
a) Percentage area
Explanation: Rutting in flexible pavements is the formation of longitudinal depression on the surface. Rutting is a defect that is visible and the extent can be ascertained. The severity of this can be expressed in terms of the depth of rutting by taking the maximum depth.
10. After the visual examination of the alligator cracks, the remedy would be to ______
a) Provide overlay
c) Removal of surface
Explanation: Alligator cracks are interconnected cracks that are spread over an area. The remedy would be to remove the damaged part of the pavement and then provide a new layer. Sealing or providing overlay over it would result in the sudden reappearance and turn out more damaging.
11. What is the minimum corrective action to be taken on finding spalling in rigid pavement during the visual inspection?
b) Patching slab
c) Slab jacking
d) Cleaning and sealing joint
Explanation: Spalling cracks can occur in rigid pavements near the joint and might result in the chipping of the slab. This, when encountered in the visual inspection, must be addressed immediately, the most minimum correction being cleaning and sealing of the joint. Providing overlay, patching, slab jacking and sawing stress relief joints are other measures.
12. Transverse cracks that get bigger, wider enough to act as a false joint are called ______
a) Pseudo joints
b) Apparent joints
c) Pseudo cracks
d) Apparent cracks
Explanation: The apparent joints look like regular joints, but actually they are transverse cracks that have been enlarged to look like a joint. They might give a false impression and their identification is very crucial as they cannot transfer load.
13. It is necessary to patch the defective part of the pavement before rehabilitation.
Explanation: For any type of rehabilitation works being carried out, it is necessary to perform the patching. If patching is provided properly, then the long-term performance of the pavement can be improved. Patching must be done by excavating full-depth of weak material.
14. ______ evaluation is used to obtain the percentage of spalled transverse cracks.
a) Spalled cracks
b) Average crack spacing
c) Shattered slabs
d) Slabs with longitudinal cracks
Explanation: The evaluation of the average crack spacing is used to obtain the percentage of transverse cracks that are spalled. It also helps in determining if the slab is behaving as designed. Very small crack spacing can lead to punchouts and large crack spacing can lead to failures.
15. The cracks in the rigid pavement that open and close due to the effect of temperature changes or traffic loading are called ______
a) Working cracks
b) Twinkling cracks
c) Breathing cracks
d) Portal cracks
Explanation: There is a type of crack in the rigid pavement that opens and closes as and when the pavement is subjected to temperature changes or traffic loading. These are called working cracks and are a structural defect. Their origin must be addressed to devise a proper remedy.
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