This set of Engineering Materials & Metallurgy Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Petroleum and its Products”.
1. What is the primary component of crude oil?
Explanation: Crude oil is greenish brown and viscous oil found on the earth’s surface. It is primarily composed of hydrocarbons (79.5-87.1%) followed by hydrogen (11.5-14.8%), sulfur (0.1-3.5%), and nitrogen and oxygen (0.1-0.5%).
2. How is crude oil separated?
b) Fractional distillation
Explanation: Crude oil is usually suspended on a layer of brine with a deposit of gas over it. This form is usually not preferred for any useful applications. The crude oil is therefore separated by fractional distillation and converted into desired products.
3. What type of gas is LPG?
d) Heavy oil
Explanation: Crude oil separated by fractional distillation is made into a number of products such as uncondensed gas. This gas is used for domestic and industrial applications by the name liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
4. What is the boiling temperature of petrol?
Explanation: Petrol, otherwise known as gasoline, is commonly used as motor fuel. It may also be used as a solvent and in dry cleaning applications. Petrol has a boiling temperature range of 120-180oC.
5. Which fuel/oil is used for obtaining gasoline?
Explanation: Heavy oil is a crude oil product used for acquiring gasoline by cracking process. It has a boiling temperature range of 250-320oC. This gasoline, in turn, is used for motor fuel.
6. Which of the following is not used as a lubricant?
a) Lubricating oil
d) Petroleum jelly
Explanation: Lubricating oils and grease are primarily used as lubricating agents, while petroleum jelly is used for lubrication as well as in cosmetics and medicines. Asphalt is a residue type product used for waterproofing of roofs and to make roads.
7. What is the function of petroleum coke?
b) In candles
c) As fuel
d) As solvent
Explanation: Petroleum coke is a carbon-rich group of products used as fuel. Petcoke is one such type of the product, which is derived from cracking process. Raw coke is referred to as green coke.
8. Carbon black and hydrogen can be manufactured using ________
a) Natural gas
b) Coal gas
c) Oil gas
d) Water gas
Explanation: Natural gas is obtained from wells in oil-rich regions. It acts as a domestic fuel and is also used to manufacture carbon black and hydrogen. Carbon black is used as a filler for rubber, whereas hydrogen is used in ammonia synthesis.
9. Coal gas is attained from to a process carried out at ________
Explanation: Coal gas is produced by heating the coal at 1300oC when there is a lack of air. It is usually done in coke ovens or gas making retorts. This gas is colorless and is lighter than air.
10. Oil gas is obtaining by the cracking of ________
a) Kerosene oil
b) Diesel oil
c) Heavy oil
Explanation: Creating oil gas is a permanent process. This is done by breaking of complex hydrocarbons of kerosene into simpler forms. This process is known as cracking. Oil finds its application as a laboratory gas.
11. Which of these gases is used for heating open-hearth furnaces?
a) Oil gas
b) Producer gas
d) Water gas
Explanation: Producer gas is known as a combination of combustible gases, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen. This gas finds its application in the heating of open-hearth furnaces, muffle furnaces, and retorts used in the production of coke. Also, it can be used as a reducing means in metallurgical practices.
12. A process of production of water gas is carried out at ________
Explanation: Water gas is formed by allowing steam and air to flow through hot coal and coke alternatively. This is maintained at about 900-1000oC in a steel vessel reactor. This gas is used a source of hydrogen and fuel gas, as well as an illuminating gas.
13. How is biogas prepared?
Explanation: Biogas is a cheap and convenient fuel used for cooking and for lighting. It is prepared by the anaerobic fermentation of cattle dung.
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