This set of Tissue Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “History & Scope”.
1. Who discovered cells and when did they do that?
a) Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, 1839
b) Charles Darwin, 1859
c) Gregor Mendel, 1865
d) Robert Hooke, 1665
Explanation: Robert Hooke was observing a slice of cork under the microscope and he remarked that he observed something which strangely resembled cellula (thus the name cells) or small rooms, however, what he was observing were actually dead plant cells.
2. In 1839, Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann discovered that trypsin could be used for degradation of matrix proteins.
Explanation: It was Rous and Jones, in 1916 discovered that trypsin is capable of degrading matrix proteins and thus separating cells to create cell suspensions.
3. The development of __________ formed the basis of modern tissue engineering.
a) SK-OV-3 cell lines
b) Stem cell lines
c) A549 cell lines
d) OVCAR-3 cell lines
Explanation: Since Tissue engineering aims at regenerating tissues and restoring cell functions, it will have to make use of stem cells to achieve this goal due to certain properties like self-renewal. The other options, SK-OV-3, A549 and OVCAR-3 are that of Cancer cell lines.
4. When was Tissue engineering conceptualized?
Explanation: In the year 1933, tissue engineering was conceptualized when mouse tumor cells demonstrated survival when encased in a biocompatible polymer membrane and implanted into the abdominal cavity of chick embryos.
5. When was the first neuronal tissue culture line developed?
Explanation: Ross Harrison born in the year 1870, on the 13th day of January, after his schooling he went to John Hopkins University in the year 1886. In the year, he isolated neural tissue fragments from a frog’s embryo and grew the in vitro and thus he was the first to discover tissue culture and also the first one to develop neuronal tissue culture line.
6. Karl Thiersch was a german surgeon in Munich. He attempted to grow skin cells into granulation wounds. While doing so, he discovered the importance of granulation tissue in the process of wound healing in 1874. In which stage of wound healing does granulation occur?
a) Hemostasis Phase
b) Proliferative Phase
c) Inflammatory Phase
d) Maturation Phase
Explanation: There are four phases in wound healing namely Hemostasis (1st phase), Proliferative (2nd phase), Inflammatory (3rd phase) and Maturation (4th phase) phases. As soon as a person gets hurt, the emergency system of the body sends various signals to the immune system asking for help in stopping blood flow from increasing, this is done by forming a dam like blockage. In the 2nd phase neutrophils (a kind of WBCs) enter the wound in order to sanitize the wound by killing bacteria and eradicating debris. The in the 3rd phase actual wound healing process starts by formation of new connective tissue called granulation tissue, this is followed by covering of wound with epithelia. In the 4th phase the newly formed tissue gains strength and flexibility lost due to the wound.
7. Ross Harrison was the first one to develop a neuronal cell line in the year 1912. This was followed by the development of stem cell lines by Alexis Carrel.
Explanation: Following the development of neuronal cell lines in 1912, which was followed by Alexis Carrel who carried out an experiment where he placed tissue cultured from a chicken embryo in a stoppered Pyrex flask designed by him. He went on to maintain the living culture for about 20 years with a regular supply of nutrients. In the year 1998, the development of stem cell lines formed the basis of modern tissue engineering.
8. Who invented the technique of cell culture?
a) Alexis Carrel
b) Robert Hooke
c) Gregor Mendel
d) Charles Vacanti
Explanation: Alexis Carrel was the one who invented the technique of cell culture. Robert Hooke discovered and termed the term Cell. Gregor Mendel discovered the basic principles of heredity. Charles Vacanti was the first one to grow human cartilage in vitro on a biodegradable scaffold.
9. Thin split thickness skin grafts were first introduced in 1872 by ______ in France, and later by ______ in Germany in 1874.
a) Louis Léopold Ollier; Karl Thiersch
b) Charles Vacanti; Joseph Vacanti
c) Alfred Hershey; Martha Chase
d) Matthias Schleiden; Theodor Schwann
Explanation: Thin split thickness skin grafts were first introduced in 1872 by in Louis Léopold Ollier France, and later by Karl Thiersch in Germany in 1874. The Vacanti brothers -Charles Vacanti and Joseph Vacanti were able to successfully grow a chest plate for young boy born with no cartilage or bone over his left lung as well as the heart. Hershey and Chase concluded that DNA was the genetic material and not protein. Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann discovered that trypsin could be used for degradation of matrix proteins.
10. When was the term “Tissue engineering” coined?
Explanation: In the year 1988, in a workshop organized by the National Science Foundation, the term Tissue Engineering was first coined. It represented a whole new scientific field that focused on tissue regeneration from cells biomaterials, scaffolds and growth factors acting as support.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Tissue Engineering.
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