Tissue Engineering Questions and Answers – Natural Biomaterials – 1

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This set of Tissue Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Natural Biomaterials – 1”.

1. _________________ helps in maintaining the structural integrity of most of the connective tissues in animals.
a) Collagen
b) Keratin
c) Elastin
d) Mucosal layer
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Collagen is found in most of mammalian tissues. Collagen helps in maintaining the structural integrity of most of the connective tissues in animals. The human body is a rich source of collagen type I-IV among more than 20 different collagen types found in the body.
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2. Which of the following have a structure with three peptide chains bound with each other to form a rope-like structure?
a) Collagen
b) DNA
c) RNA
d) Peptidoglycan
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Collagen has a rope-like structure in which three peptide chains are intertwined. Collagen gels are thermally reversible with limited mechanical properties.

3. Type I collagen is the dominant component in the native __________ scaffold.
a) bone
b) heart
c) liver
d) cartilage
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Type I collagen is the dominant component in the native bone scaffold and plays an important role in bone formation from stem/progenitor cells through a developmental cascade.
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4. Collagen can be found naturally in cartilage tissue.
a) TRUE
b) FALSE
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Collagen can naturally be found in cartilage tissue and regulates chondrocyte adhesion and stem cell differentiation to chondrocytes through molecular interactions between the protein ligands and the cells.

5. Hyaluronic acid plays an important role in ____________
a) wound Healing
b) adhesion
c) migration
d) differentiation
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Hyaluronic acid or hyaluronan is a natural material that is widely found in connective tissues. It is one of the simplest GAG components in the ECM and plays an important role in wound healing in the body.
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6. Hyaluronic acid can be degraded by chitinase.
a) TRUE
b) FALSE
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Hyaluronic acid can be degraded by hyaluronidase derived from serum and cells. However, hyaluronic acid needs a precise purification procedure to remove impurities and endotoxins that may cause an immune response or disease.

7. PVC is usually added to hyaluronic acid in order to control its mechanical properties.
a) TRUE
b) FALSE
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Adding some functional groups to hyaluronic acid can provide a more hydrophobic material capable of chemical cross-linking with other polymers such as PEG to control its mechanical properties.
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8. ____________ is one of the most common methods of modifying hyaluronic acid.
a) Esterification
b) Enzymatic modification
c) Hydrolysis
d) Trans-esterification
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The esterification of hyaluronic acid is the most commonly used approach to modify hyaluronic acid. Hayff-11 is a benzyl ester of hyaluronic acid that has been commercialized and clinically approved.

9. Alginic acid is obtained from ___________
a) brown algae
b) amoeba
c) goldfish
d) phytoplankton
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Alginic acid or alginate is the main structural component of seaweed and is obtained from brown algae’s extracellular matrix. It is a high molecular weight linear polymer and few studies have reported that alginic acid inhibits the HIV reverse transcriptase activity.
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10. _______ and ________ are monomers of Alginate.
a) Sucrose and glucose
b) Maltose and galactose
c) Mannuronic acid and guluronic acid
d) Galactose and glucose
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Alginates are a type of polysaccharide block copolymers containing monomers of sequential β-d-mannuronic acid and α-l-guluronic acid, which are distributed in the polymer chain.

11. Alginate is suitable for __________________
a) drug delivery
b) wound Healing
c) storage
d) consumption
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Alginate has wide applications in TE and drug delivery due to its low toxicity, relatively low cost, and ease of chemical modification and gelation.

12. Covalent cross-linking of alginate gels with different molecules is a useful approach to control the __________ and mechanical properties of gels.
a) swelling
b) strength
c) toughness
d) porosity
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Alginate has the drawback of degradation through an uncontrollable and unpredictable process to release divalent ions into its surrounding medium. Covalent cross-linking of alginate gels with different molecules is a useful approach to control the swelling and mechanical properties of gels.

13. Addition of _________ to alginate improves the cellular binding and interactions.
a) lectin
b) adenosine
c) collagen
d) elastin
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Modified alginate gels with some proteins, such as lectin, have high cellular binding and interactions. Such modified alginate gels have been used to culture muscle cells and make muscle tissues.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter