This set of Tissue Engineering online quiz focuses on “Endothelial Cells”.
1. When the blastula has three primary germ layers, it is called as ____________
Explanation: When the blastula has three primary germ layers, namely ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, then it is called Triploblasty. These germ layers are formed during the gastrulation of the blastula.
2. Endothelium of the interior surfaces of the heart chambers is called as _________________
Explanation: Pericardium is a membrane enclosing the heart. The endocardium is the endothelial layer lining the interior surface of the heart chambers. Mesoderm is the middle germ layer which formed during embryo development. The Ectoderm is the outermost germ layer.
3. Which of the following is not a triploblastic organism?
Explanation: All intermediate and higher animals, from flatworms to humans, are triploblastic in nature, and they belong to the Bilateria subregnum. Simpler animals are termed as diploblastic, for example, cnidarian (includes corals, hydra and jellyfish), and they possess two germ layers.
4. What is the innermost germ layer in simpler organisms like sponges?
Explanation: No true tissues are present in simpler organisms like sponges. The body wall of sponges consists of two main layers, pinacoderm and choanoderm (outermost and innermost respectively), and the middle layer caller mesophyll is non-cellular in nature.
5. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called as ___________ endothelial cells.
Explanation: Vascular endothelial cells are the ones that are directly in contact with the blood. They run throughout the circulatory system, including the heart and the thinnest of capillaries.
6. When the endothelial layer of small arteries is not able to function normally, then the condition is termed as endothelial dysfunction.
Explanation: When the endothelial layer of small arteries is not able to function normally, then the condition is termed as endothelial dysfunction. This condition is related to the reduction of the availability of nitric oxide (NO) in blood vessel walls.
7. The mesodermal layer maintains the proper dilation and constriction of the blood vessels.
Explanation: The endothelial layer maintains proper dilation and constriction of the blood vessels. The mesodermal layer is the germ layer present in animal embryos that gives rise to a specialized type of tissues.
8. How thick is the endothelial layer of the cornea?
a) 80 mm
b) 50 µm
c) 1 nm
d) 1 cm
Explanation: The thickness of the corneal endothelial layer is about 50 microns. It is embryologically derived from the neural crest.
9. There are about 500 g endothelium cells in an adult human.
Explanation: In a fully grown adult human there is about 1 kilogram of endothelium cells, this covers an area of about 7m2.
10. __________ is caused due to endothelial damage.
c) Alzheimer’s Disease
Explanation: Atherosclerosis is caused due to endothelial damage. Cancer is caused due to the accumulation of damaged genes products. Like all types of Dementia, Alzheimer’s disease is caused due to brain-cell death. Ringworm is a contagious fungal infection caused by mold-like parasites living on cells of the outermost layer of the skin.
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