This set of Tissue Engineering Questions and Answers for Freshers focuses on “Tissue Engineering vs Regenerative Medicine”.
1. Quite like Tissue engineering _____________ is a branch of translational research trying to devise ways to fool the immune system in order to avoid immune attacks.
b) gene therapy
c) regenerative medicine
d) molecular medicine
Explanation: Translational research is a domain of research that makes use of knowledge from basic biology and clinical trials to create tools and techniques that address chronic medical needs. Regenerative medicine is one of the tools under translational research which deals with replacing the diseased cells in order to restore normal cell function. Whereas molecular medicine is a much broader field aiming to develop molecular interventions to correct molecular and genetic errors of a disease. Gene therapy on the other hand again aims at treating or preventing the disease by the use of genes. On the other hand, cloning is a technique of creating a genetic duplicate of an organism either artificially or naturally.
2. Gradual deterioration of the Immune system as age increases is termed as ___________________
Explanation: Gradual deterioration of the Immune system as age increases is termed as immuno-senescence. Immuno-staining is an antibody-based technique for identifying a protein in a given sample. Immuno-suppression is the term for shutting down the immune system of a person using immune-suppressants. This is done in order to avoid immune attacks on the foreign tissue grafted onto the patient’s body. The process by which the immune system looks for and identifies foreign pathogens are called immune-surveillance.
3. _____________ is referred to as The Father of Regenerative Medicine.
a) Arnie Caplan
b) Gregor Mendel
Explanation: Arnie Caplan is referred to as The Father of Regenerative Medicine. Gregor Mendel (1822-1844), Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) and Theophrastus (371–286 B.C.) are referred to as fathers of Genetics, Biology, and Botany respectively.
4. Immuno-suppressants are usually used to overcome the immune-rejection caused due to the immune system’s attack on the foreign tissue used in transplantation.
Explanation: In the case of transplantation of a tissue received from a donor into the patient’s body, there are high chances of graft-rejection thus causing degradation of the graft tissue. This calls for the use of immune-suppressants to shut down the immune system to some extent. This is not the case with regenerative medicine because the cells used for treatment are mostly autologous cells.
5. In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine support or biomaterial is required for the cells to be cultured. Nature’s template for a biomaterial is the _____________
a) extra-cellular matrix
b) stroma lamellae
c) lymph fluid
d) blood plasma
Explanation: In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine support or biomaterial is required for the cells to be cultured. Nature’s template for a biomaterial is the extracellular matrix. It is secreted by cells and acts as a specific, functional and protective layer for the cells.
6. Decellularization is a technique used to extract out cell/genetic material free extracellular matrix to produce a near-natural scaffold to avoid immune rejections.
Explanation: Decellularization is a technique used to extract out cell/genetic material free extracellular matrix to produce a near-natural scaffold to avoid immune rejections. Decellularization is accomplished using chemical, enzymatic or physical methods. This technique is a major advancement in Regenerative Medicine.
7. Which techniques have been diagrammatically shown below?
a) Gene therapy (Above); Molecular Medicine (Below)
b) Tissue Engineering (Above); Regenerative Medicine (Below)
c) Regenerative Medicine (Above); Tissue Engineering (Below)
d) Cloning (Above); Molecular Medicine (Below)
Explanation: In Tissue Engineering the cells from the patient’s biopsy are collected and cultured to generate pure cell lines. These cells are later allowed to grow on a framework for the tissue which is also called a scaffold, and thus the graft is generated. This process has been diagrammatically represented the top part. While the first step of collecting cells from patient’s biopsy remains the same in regenerative medicine. But the following steps include nuclear reprogramming of the cells collected and they are allowed to expand in vitro. Later these cells are administered through cell therapy back into the patient. This process has been diagrammatically represented in the bottom part.
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