Immunology Questions and Answers – Secondary Immunodeficiency Disorders

This set of Immunology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Secondary Immunodeficiency Disorders”.

1. Which of the following is NOT a secondary immunodeficiency disorder?
a) HIV
b) DiGeorge Syndrome
c) Leukemia
d) Viral hepatitis
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: DiGeorge Syndrome occurs because of various genetic changes hence it is a primary immunodeficiency disorder. On the other hand, HIV, leukemia, viral hepatitis, etc are associated to secondary immunodeficiency disorders as these disorders are mainly caused due to some naturally affecting or external factors. These immunodeficiency disorders are not associated with genetic issues but are caused due to environmental factors.  

2. Which of the following factor is NOT considered for secondary immunodeficiency disorder?
a) Old age
b) Malnutrition
c) Environmental conditions
d) Family heredity
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Secondary immunodeficiency disorders (SIDs) are caused due to external factors and it can act in people having a low immunity of weak immune responses. Other than considering the immune system, SID can also occur in people who are old. It also affects the people who suffer from malnutrition. Environmental conditions are one of the most important causes of SID. These factors include surgery or trauma or even treatments involving UV rays that can be harmful to the body after certain limit and even chemotherapy. On the other hand, family history is checked for detecting PID as it occurs due to the genetic defects that are certainly transformed from parents to offspring.

3. What type of SID occurs in endocrine?
a) Hodgkin lymphoma
b) Multiple myeloma
c) Diabetes mellitus
d) Leukemia
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Diabetes mellitus is an impaired insulin secretion leading to hyperglycaemia. The earliest symptom seen is blurred vision, vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, etc. This occurs when there is an irregular increase in glucose level of the body. This can occur due to high consumption of sugared food items. This takes place in the endocrine system as endocrine glands releases all the necessary hormones and glucose in blood stream. 

4. Systemic lupus erythematosus is which type of SID?
a) Infectious disorder
b) Renal disorder
c) Nutritional disorder
d) Rheumatologic disorder
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Systemic lupus erythematosus (also denoted as SLE) is a secondary immunodeficiency disorder and is primarily associated with rheumatoid hence it is a Rheumatologic secondary immunodeficiency disorder. This disorder is chronic and the common symptoms are pain and swelling of joins, rashes on nose and cheeks as well as minor to major headaches.    

5. Which is the most common secondary immunodeficiency disorder?
a) Myeloma 
b) Hepatitis
d) Cancer of WBCs
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The most common SID is AIDS which results from infection by HIV. It results in high mortality rate if not treated on time. AIDS occurs if there is unsafe intercourse between two people or if one of the two is infected. The other most common SID is malnutrition which affects both, innate as well as adaptive immune system. Malnutrition affects the people who do not get a lot of healthy food including proper amounts of nutrients for optimal health. This mostly occurs in poor people who do not get proper food on a daily basis.

6. What is the cancer of immune system called?
a) Lymphoma
b) Sclerosis
c) Blood cancer
d) Lymph node cancer
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Cancer of the immune system is known as lymphoma. Our immune system is mainly associated with lymphocytes and other immunity cells. Tumour or cancer in lymphocytes can result in lymphoma. These cells reside in the lymph nosed, spleen, thymus and bone marrow. When lymphocytes growth becomes irregular and uncontrollable it causes lymphoma. It weakens the immune system to a great scale which eventually leads to cancer. However, Lymphoma is treatable depending on the stage of the cancer. 

7. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of multiple myeloma?
a) Constipation
b) Bone pain
c) Confusion
d) Cough and Cold
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Multiple myeloma is the cancer that occurs in the plasma cells. Plasma cells play a very important role in attacking the germs and infections. If cancer is caused in plasma cells, they become cancerous and the entire process is disturbed. They clump and gather near bone marrow in order to infect other healthy plasma cells. Due to this reason, the major symptom seen is bone pain or joint pain. The secondary symptoms may be constipation, confusion, dizziness, etc.

8. Lymphoma is different from leukemia as each of these cancers start in different type of cells.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Lymphoma is the cancer of immune system, especially affecting the lymphocytes that fight against infections. In other words, Lymphoma is related to changes in lymphocyte number. On the other hand, leukemia is the cancer of blood and is related to high levels of white blood cells as a whole. Therefore, it is related to the blood-forming cells present in the bone marrow. Hence it is said that these two terms are not the same as their place of occurring is quite different from one another. 

9. Which of the following external factor does NOT trigger the immune system when acquired aplastic anemia is detected?
a) Viruses like HIV
b) Weather changes
c) Toxic chemicals
d) Radiation or chemotherapy
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Deficiencies of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells can lead to cause acquired aplastic anaemia. It is also caused by factors such as decrease in the cell count associated with bone marrow as well as abnormal changes in peripheral blood. It primarily affects children, young adults, and those over 60 years of age. External factors like coming in contact with viruses like HIV or toxic chemicals and even harmful radiations or chemotherapy during cancer affect T cells which further cause stem cell depletion. This leads to a weakened immune system and can be fatal in some cases. 

10. What is another name for Epstein-Barr Virus?
a) Human gammaherpesvirus 4
b) Human aplhaherpesvirus 4
c) Human betaherpesvirus 4
d) Human immunodeficit herpesvirus 4
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Human gammaherpesvirus 4 is another term used for Epstein-Barr Virus (also denoted as EBV). This virus is very common and affects most of the human population. EBV belongs to the herpes family. It mainly spreads by saliva and can cause various infections. As it is a very common virus, it is not necessary that people being affected by this virus will always show symptoms. It depends on the person’s immunity on how his/her immunity can handle the actions to kill the virus. In some serious cases, EBV can be treated by antibiotics.  

11. Overproduction of macrophages can lead to which type of disorder?
a) Leukemia
b) Lymphoma
c) Histiocytosis
d) Cancer of RBCs
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Macrophages are a type of white blood cells which are developed and produced in the bone marrow. They are scientifically also termed as histiocytes. Therefore, as the name suggests, overproduction of histiocytes can lead to histiocytosis. A patient suffering from histiocytosis can lead to organ damage or tumour formation. The common symptoms seen are cough, fever, shortness in breath, discomfort and the most severe symptoms are bone and chest pain. 

12. What is caused when there is too much of proteins in urine?
a) Renal cancer
b) Nephrotic syndrome
c) Disfunction of kidney
d) Kidney failure
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Nephrotic syndrome is not a disease but it is one of the disorders of the kidney. It occurs if high levels of protein slips through the filters into urine. This can affect both children and adults. The high levels of proteins can occur due to some issues in other parts of the body. The other ways to detect nephrotic syndrome is high fat and cholesterol levels in blood, swelling of legs and feet as well as low levels of albumin in blood.

13. By which way is HIV NOT transmitted?
a) Blood
b) Semen
c) Person-to-person touch
d) Vaginal or rectal fluids
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: HIV is transmitted mainly by blood, vaginal or rectal fluids and unsafe, unprotected intercourse. This can cause various damages in the immune system. If HIV is left untreated, it can cause serious conditions leading to cancer. HIV is not transmitted by air or water. It completely depends on an unsafe contact between two people or by using needles that have already been used.  

14. What is Varicella zoster virus also termed as?
a) Human alphaherpesvirus 3
b) Human gammaherpesvirus 3
c) Human alphaherpesvirus 4
d) Human gammaherpesvirus 4
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Varicella Zoster Virus (HZV) is also referred to as Human Alphaherpesvirus c) It belongs to the herpes family. This virus majorly causes chicken pox which affects children and young adults. This virus resides in the ganglia nerves and multiplies in the lungs. The reactivation of this virus results in Shingles which occurs in adults. The most common symptoms of both are rashes developing on face or body, blisters and itching.   

15. Which test is to be taken if there is too much calcium in blood as a suspect of multiple myeloma?
a) Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine
b) C-reactive protein test
c) Calcium blood test
d) Folate test
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: If a patient takes a normal blood test for any other reason rather than for multiple myeloma and if the doctor finds out high levels of calcium in blood or low levels of red blood cells, kidney problems or even high levels of protein in blood: this can be suspect of Multiple myeloma. To confirm the presence of multiple myeloma two major tests are done which are: 1) complete blood count (CBC) as it measures the different cells in the blood along with their approximate count & 2) Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine test which checks the functioning of the kidneys.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Immunology.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He lives in Bangalore, and focuses on development of Linux Kernel, SAN Technologies, Advanced C, Data Structures & Alogrithms. Stay connected with him at LinkedIn.

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