1. What is immunology?
a) The study of insects
b) The study of the immune system and its responses
c) The study of astronomy
d) The study of rocks and minerals
Explanation: Immunology is the scientific study that focuses on understanding the immune system and its responses. This field explores how the body defends itself against infections, diseases, and foreign substances.
2. What are the signaling molecules of the immune system?
Explanation: Antigens are the foreign molecules and they act as the signal that indicates the presence of non-self molecules in the body. Cytokines are the molecules that are responsible for the interaction of the various immune cells.
3. Who is considered the father of immunology?
a) Paul Ehrlich
b) Robert Koch
c) Edward Jenner
d) Louis Pasteur
Explanation: Paul Ehrlich is often regarded as the father of immunology. His groundbreaking work contributed significantly to the understanding of the immune system, including the concept of antibodies and the side-chain theory.
4. What does MHC stand for in immunology?
a) Molecular Host Carrier
b) Membrane Homeostasis Control
c) Major Histocompatibility Complex
d) Microscopic Health Component
Explanation: MHC, or Major Histocompatibility Complex, refers to a group of genes that encode proteins essential for the immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in presenting antigens to T cells, aiding in immune responses.
5. Which of the following cells are involved in innate immune responses as well as adaptive immune responses?
a) Dendritic cells
b) Natural Killer cells
Explanation: Dendritic cells are involved in antigen presentation where they are served as a link between innate immune system and adaptive immunity system.
6. Which of these cells give rise to antibodies?
a) T cells
c) Plasma cells
d) B cells
Explanation: Upon maturation and activation, B cells differentiate into Plasma cells which give rise to Antibodies. It is to be noted that B cells do not directly give rise to the antibodies. Lymphocytes, however, is a lineage of cells which gives rise to B cells and T cells.
7. Which immunoglobulin is the first to be produced during an immune response?
Explanation: IgM is the first antibody class produced during the initial stages of an immune response.
8. What are thymocytes?
a) Matured B cells
b) Immaturd B cells
c) Matured T cells
d) Immatured T cells
Explanation: Immatured T cells are called thymocytes. Thymus is the site of maturation of T cells. These cells when matured are called naive or unprimed T cells until the selection process.
9. What are responsible for recruiting immune cells to a specific location within the body?
Explanation: Chemokines are one of the superfamily of cytokines. These work through the Chemotaxis process, hence the name Chemokines. These are responsible for recruiting immune cells to the particular target cells.
10. Which receptors do alpha-beta T cells express?
Explanation: Alpha-beta T cells express CD3 on the surface. This CD3 helps in activating the both naive CD4+ expressing T helper cells and naive CD8+ expressing T cytotozic cells.
11. Which of the following process gives rise to all the cells of immune system?
Explanation: Hematopoiesis is the process by which all the cells of the immune system and the red blood cells develop. The stem cells from which all these cells arise are the Hematopoietic Stem Cells.
12. What is the primary function of dendritic cells in the immune system?
a) Kill infected cells
b) Secrete histamine
c) Produce antibodies
d) Present antigens to T cells
Explanation: Dendritic cells are specialized antigen-presenting cells that play a crucial role in initiating adaptive immune responses.
13. In immunology, what does tolerance refer to?
a) The inability of the immune system to recognize self from non-self
b) The resistance of an organism to diseases
c) The ability of the immune system to respond vigorously to pathogens
d) The rapid activation of immune responses
Explanation: In immunology, tolerance refers to the immune system’s ability to distinguish between the body’s own cells (self) and foreign substances (non-self). It involves preventing an immune response against the body’s own tissues to avoid autoimmunity.
Chapterwise Multiple Choice Questions on Immunology
- Cells, Organs and Microenvironments of the Immune System
- Receptors and Signaling: B and T-Cell Receptors
- Receptors and Signaling: Cytokines and Chemokines
- Innate Immunity
- Complement System
- Organization and Expression of Lymphocyte Receptor Genes
- Major Histocompatibility Complex and Antigen Presentation
- T-Cell and B-Cell Development
- T-Cell Activation, Differentiation and Memory
- B-Cell Activation, Differentiation, and Memory Generation
- Effector Responses: Cell and Antibody-Mediated Immunity
- Immune Response in Space and Time
- Allergy, Hypersensitivities and Chronic Inflammation
- Tolerance, Autoimmunity and Transplantation
- Infectious Diseases and Vaccines
- Immunodeficiency Disorders
- Cancer and the Immune System
- Experimental Systems and Methods
1. Cells, Organs and Microenvironments of the Immune System
The section contains multiple choice questions and answers on immune system cells like myeloid lineage and lymphoid lineage, primary and secondary lymphoid organs.
2. Receptors and Signaling MCQ: B and T-Cell Receptors
The section contains questions and answers on receptor-ligand interactions, antibodies structure, b-cells signal transduction, t-cells receptors and signalling.
3. Receptors and Signaling MCQ: Cytokines and Chemokines
The section contains MCQs on the general properties of cytokines and chemokines, the six families of cytokines and their receptor molecules, cytokine antagonists, cytokine-related diseases, and cytokine-based therapies.
4. Innate Immunity
The section contains multiple choice questions and answers on anatomical barriers, phagocytosis, induced cellular innate responses, inflammatory responses, natural killer cells, as well as regulation, interactions, and ubiquity related to innate immunity.
5. Immunology MCQ on Complement System
The section contains questions and answers on complement activation pathways, complement diverse functions, complement activity and deficiencies regulation.
6. Organization and Expression of Lymphocyte Receptor Genes
The section contains Immunology MCQs on immunoglobulin gene structure and their multigene organization, vdj recombination mechanism, b-cell and t-cell receptor expressions.
7. Immunology MCQ on Major Histocompatibility Complex and Antigen Presentation
The section contains multiple choice questions and answers on mhc molecules structure, function, organization and inheritance, mhc role and expression patterns, as well as non-peptide antigen presentation, endogenous and exogenous pathways of antigen processing, and presentation.
8. T-Cell and B-Cell Development
The section contains Immunology questions and answers on thymocyte development, t-cell development, lineage commitment, thymus and final maturation, self tolerance and apoptosis maintenance, site of haematopoiesis, bone marrow b-cell development, b1 development and marginal zone b-cells.
9. T-Cell Activation, Differentiation and Memory
The section contains MCQs on t-cell activation, two signal hypothesis, t-cell differentiation and memory.
10. B-Cell Activation, Differentiation, and Memory Generation
The section contains multiple-choice questions and answers on Immunotechnology, covering T-dependent and T-independent B-cell responses, B-cell negative regulation, somatic hypermutation, and class switching.
11. Effector Responses: Cell and Antibody-Mediated Immunity
The section contains questions and answers on antibody mediated effector functions, cytotoxic t-cells and natural killer cells.
12. Immune Response in Space and Time
The section contains Immunotechnology MCQs on immune cell behavior before antigen is introduced or cell behavior during the innate and adaptive immune responses.
13. Immunology Questions on Allergy, Hypersensitivities and Chronic Inflammation
The section contains multiple choice questions and answers on allergy, type-i hypersensitivity reaction, antibody-mediated and immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, delayed-type hypersensitivity and chronic inflammation.
14. Tolerance, Autoimmunity and Transplantation
The section contains questions and answers on tolerance establishment and maintenance, transplantation immunology, factors of autoimmunity, mechanisms, diseases, and its therapies.
15. Immunology Multiple Choice Questions on Infectious Diseases and Vaccines
The section contains MCQs on infections like viral infections, bacterial infections, parasitic and fungal infections, vaccines types and its production.
16. Immunodeficiency Disorders
The section contains multiple choice questions and answers on primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders.
17. Cancer and the Immune System
The section contains questions and answers on cancer terminology, types, and its immunotherapy, cancer immune responses, malignant transformation and tumor antigens.
18. Immunotechnology MCQ on Experimental Systems and Methods
The section contains MCQs on antibody generation, immunoprecipitation and agglutination reactions, elisa, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry.
Wish you the best in your endeavor to learn and master Immunology!