Chronic Inflammation Questions and Answers

This set of Immunology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Chronic Inflammation”.

1. Chronic inflammation occurs due to which of the following cells?
a) T cells
b) B cells
c) Leucocytes
d) Red blood cells
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In some humans, due to breathing difficulties or long-term asthma issues, there is a possibility of changes in the immune system by a higher degree. If at all the immune system continuously starts recruiting and enrolling leucocytes to their respective sites, there are chances that the patient might have chronic inflammation. If this is the case, then it can be associated with the patient for a long term. The recruitment of leucocytes results in tissue damage and its injuries because of the inflammatory behaviour. However, this can be cured within weeks or months or it might even remain for life time depending upon the seriousness of inflammation. 

2. Which of the following is NOT a chronic inflammation mediated disease?
a) Diabetes
b) Cardiovascular diseases
c) Arthritis and Joint disorders
d) Allergic contact dermatitis
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Allergic contact dermatitis is caused due to type IV hypersensitivity reaction which is mediated by T cells that produce cytokines for destruction of targeted macrophages. On the other hand, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis and joint disorders are all mediated by chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation also causes chronic respiratory diseases, heart disorders and obesity. It is also deeply involved in development and progression of human cancers by causing genetic alterations. 

3. Granulomatous inflammation is characterised by which of the following factors?
a) Presence of nodular lesions
b) Presence of mononuclear cells
c) Proliferation of mononuclear cells
d) Proliferation of nodular lesions
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Granulomatous inflammation is one of the types of Chronic inflammation. It is characterised by the presence of nodular lesions or granulomas. These nodular lesions/granulomas are distinct. They are formed by aggregation of activated macrophages or derived cells called epithelioid cells. These cells are generally surrounded by lymphocytes. The macrophages or epithelioid cells usually come together to form a mass of cells inside the granulomas and form foreign bodies. These foreign bodies in turn cause inflammation of granulomas resulting in granulomatous inflammation.

4. Diet rich in saturated fats or sugar results in production of inflammatory molecules.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Food choices are very important for the overall health of human body. With growing age of a human, immunity lowers down due to consumption of various inflammatory foods. Diet rich in fats and sugars is one of the main factors that enhances chronic inflammations. This usually is a case in old age and overweight people. They must consume anti-inflammatory foods such as fruits, garlic, some spices like turmeric, ginger, etc. 

5. Nonspecific proliferative chronic inflammation occurs due to which of the following factor?
a) Infiltration of mononuclear cells
b) Infiltration of red blood cells
c) Infiltration of B cells
d) Infiltration of T cells
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation:  Nonspecific proliferative chronic inflammation is a type of chronic inflammation which is formed due to infiltration of mononuclear cells. These mononuclear cells include lymphocytes, macrophages as well as plasma cells. They cause inflammatory lesions due to which macrophages and lymphocytes form clusters at the site of injury to clear away the debris. This type of chronic inflammation causes proliferation of fibroblasts and connective tissues along with few vessels and epithelial cells. 

6. Which of the following blood tests are considered to be the best for inflammation?
a) Blood sugar test and fibrinogen blood test
b) High-sensitive C-reactive protein test and glucose test
c) High-sensitive C-reactive protein test and fibrinogen blood test
d) Blood sugar test and glucose test
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Two of the most important and best blood tests considered to check inflammation is 1) High-sensitive C-reactive protein test (also termed as hsCRP) and 2) fibrinogen blood test. If there is detection of high levels of hsCRP, it indicates inflammation. However, it is not a specific marker only for chronic inflammation but it is also a good marker to detect acute inflammations. On the other hand, if high levels of fibrinogens are detected via fibrinogen blood test, it indicates inflammation. The rising levels of fibrinogen determine the extent of inflammation.

7. Which of the following chronic inflammatory disorder belongs to the digestive tract?
a) Alzheimer’s disease
b) Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
c) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
d) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory disorder of the digestive tract. It causes long-lasting inflammations and ulcers in the lining of large intestine and rectum. IBD causes two different types of disorders depending on where the inflammation is caused. If it affects the lining of the digestive tract which disperse into affected tissues then it causes Crohn’s disease whereas if inflammation occurs in the digestive tract resulting in ulcers, it results in ulcerative colitis.

8. Which of the following risk factors is NOT associated with chronic inflammation?
a) Age
b) Sudden chills and fever
c) Smoking
d) Stress and sleep disorders
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Chronic inflammation disorders is associated with a number of risk factors which can be harmful, long-lasting or even short termed. Increasing age is directly proportional to increase in inflammatory molecules in the body. This increase in inflammatory molecules can be due to mitochondrial dysfunction or free radical accumulation. Smoking is another most common risk factor as it lowers the production of anti-inflammatory molecules thereby increasing the rate of inflammation. Stress and sleep disorders is also considered to be a risk factor associated with chronic inflammation disorder. Irregular sleep cycle or change in sleep cycle and even stress causes release of various stress molecules and cytokines. These released molecules and cytokines can result in inflammation.

9. Which of the following cytokine is an anti-inflammatory cytokine?
a) TNF
b) IL-6
d) IL-10
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: IL-10 is one of the anti-inflammatory cytokines. It has been marked as one of the inhibitors as it limits the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Some of the proinflammatory cytokine which enhance inflammation are TNF, IL-6, IL-1BETA, etc. IL-10 can regulate endogenous anti-cytokines and lower the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. 

10. What is the normal serum level for hsCRP in men?
a) Less than 0.55 mg/L
b) More than 0.55 mg/L
c) 0.55 mg/L
d) 0.55mg/L to 0.65mg/L
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: hsCRP is high-sensitivity C reactive protein test for blood which detects the inflammation levels in humans. The normal serum levels of hsCRP is less than 0.55 mg/L in men and less than 1.0 mg/L in women. If the levels of hsCRP increases beyond the normal levels, it indicates higher levels and rates of inflammation. This test not only detects chronic inflammations but also acute inflammations. 

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He lives in Bangalore, and focuses on development of Linux Kernel, SAN Technologies, Advanced C, Data Structures & Alogrithms. Stay connected with him at LinkedIn.

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