# PLC Program to Perform Capping of Beverage Bottles

This is a PLC Program to Perform Capping of Beverage Bottles.

Problem Description

Beverage bottles are moving on a conveyor belt. Capping of these bottles is performed. Crown cork caps are used for these bottles. Implement automation of this process in PLC using Ladder Diagram programming language.

Problem Diagram

Problem Solution
• To sense the bottle, proximity sensor is used.
• Timer is used to stop the conveyor for 1sec for capping procedure.
• Bit Shift register is also used to perform this operation.
• Count the number of steps capping machine is placed from the sensor and set bit position to operate capping machine accordingly.
• In this example as you can see, bottle is 8 steps away from the proximity switch, so if Bit register B3:0 is used, then capping machine should be operated when B3:0/0 is shifted to B3:0/7.
• Capping machine is operated by pneumatic system. It is activated by air supply when energized.
• Similarly we can even make an arrangement where two capping machines are operated, one to cap small bottles and other for larger bottles.
PLC Program

Here is PLC program to Perform Capping of Beverage Bottles, along with program explanation and run time test cases.

```List of Inputs and Outputs
I:1/0	= Start								(Input)
I:1/1	= Stop								(Input)
I:1/2	= Proximity							(Input)
O:2/0	= Master coil / Run						(Output)
O:2/1	= Conveyor motor						(Output)
O:2/2	= Capping machine						(Output)
BSL	= Bit shift left instruction					(Logical)
B3:0	= Bit shift Register						(Register)
B3:0/7	= Bit to energize capping machine				(Bit)
R6:0	= Control register						(Register)
T4:0	= Timer to stop conveyor for capping				(Timer)
LIM	= Limit output to perform capping before conveyor starts again	(Compare)```

Ladder Diagram to accomplish capping of bottles

Program Description
• RUNG001 & RUNG002 are used to operate conveyor motor.
• Assuming it takes 0.8secs to cap a bottle, so capping is performed conveyor is stopped for a sec.
• When the system is started, conveyor motor with address O:2/1 runs for a moment and stops for a sec. Timer is in auto reset mode by giving XIO of T4:0/DN in series to it.
• RUNG003 and RUNG004 are used to operate bit shift register and Capping Machine with address O:2/2.
• Whenever conveyor motor is in RUN mode and bottles is detected by the proximity sensor with input I:1/2, it sets B3:0/0 bit and is shifted left when conveyor motor runs for a moment.
• From proximity to capping machine, distance is 8 steps. Hence bit B3:0/7 of B3:0 register operates capping machine.
• When Accumulator value is between 2 to 8 that is when conveyor is stopped for a sec and timer is between 0.2-0.8secs, capping machine is operated.
Runtime Test Cases
```Inputs	                 Output  	Physical Elements
I:1/2 = 1 & T4:0/DN = 0	 B3:0/0 = 1	Set first bit of bit register
T4:0/DN = 1	         O:2/1 = 1	Run conveyor motor
T4:0/DN = 0	         O:2/1 = 0	Stop conveyor motor, shift bit left
T4:0.ACC = 2<Accum<8	 O:2/2 = 1	Perform capping```

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