Dairy Engineering Questions and Answers – Cattle Health – 3

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This set of Advanced Dairy Engineering Questions and Answers focuses on “Cattle Health – 3”.

1. What is intravenous injection?
a) It is administered in the muscle
b) It is administered under the skin
c) It is the administration of medication to a cow via the blood vessels
d) It requires the tented method
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Some medications must be given by an intravenous (IV) injection or infusion. This means they’re sent directly into your vein using a needle or tube. With IV administration, a thin plastic tube called an IV catheter is inserted into your vein.
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2. What is intra muscular injection?
a) It is administered in the muscle
b) It is administered under the skin
c) It is the administration of medication to a cow via the blood vessels
d) It requires the tented method
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: An intramuscular injection is a technique used to deliver a medication deep into the muscles. You may have received an intramuscular injection at a doctor’s office the last time you got a vaccine, like the flu shot.

3. What is subcutaneous injection?
a) It is administered in the muscle
b) It is administered under the skin
c) It is the administration of medication to a cow into the blood vessels
d) It requires the tented method
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis. Subcutaneous injections are highly effective in administering vaccines and medications such as insulin, morphine, diacetylmorphine and goserelin.

4. Regarding feed formulation, what does CAD stand for?
a) Cation-Anion Degree
b) Cation-Anion Difference
c) Cation-Amonia Difference
d) Carbohydrate- Amino Degradation
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Dietary cation-anion difference, or DCAD, is a measure you should be used in both dry and lactating cows. In close-up dry cows, a negative (-ve ) DCAD helps to prevent metabolic problems and in lactating cows, a positive DCAD can help increase milk production and milk components.

5. What is a cation?
a) A negatively charged ion
b) An uncharged ion
c) A positively charged electron
d) A positively charged ion
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Cations and anions are both ions. The difference between a cation and an anion is the net electrical charge of the ion. Ions are atoms/ molecules those who have gained or lost one or more valence electrons giving the ion a net positive or negative charge. Cations are ions with a net positive charge.
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6. What is an anion?
a) A positively charged ion
b) An uncharged ion
c) A positively charged electron
d) A negatively charged ion
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Anions are atoms or radicals (groups of atoms), that have gained electrons. As they now have more of electrons than protons, anions have a negative charge.

7. What is NAFTA?
a) North American Forage Trade Association
b) North American Free Trade Agreement
c) North American Free Trade Association
d) North African Free Trade Association
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a piece of regulation implemented January 1, 1994, simultaneously in Mexico, Canada and the United States that eliminates most tariffs on trade between these nations.

8. What is USAHA?
a) U S Animal Housing Association
b) U S Animal Health Award
c) U S Agriculture Health Administrator
d) U S Animal Health Association
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The United States Animal Health Association (USAHA), the nation’s animal health forum for over a century, is a science-based, non-profit, voluntary organization. USAHA works with state and federal governments, universities, veterinarians, livestock producers, national livestock and poultry organizations, research scientists, the extension service and several foreign countries to control livestock diseases in the United States.

9. What is the USDA’s AIPL?
a) Animal Improvement Program Library
b) Animal Import Program Liability
c) Animal Improvement Program Lab
d) Animal Import Process Language
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In April 2014, the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (AIPL) and the Bovine Functional Genomics Laboratory (BFGL) were merged to form the Animal Genomics and Improvement Laboratory (AGIL). As part of the merger, the main AIPL research project on the discovery and development of improved methods for the genetic and genomic evaluation of economically important traits of dairy animals has renamed the Animal Improvement Program (AIP).
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10. How many days into a pregnancy can a fetus be sexed by ultrasound?
a) Before 14 days
b) Between 14 and 30 days
c) Between 30 and 55 days
d) Between 55 and 95
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: At approximately day 60 of gestation, male and female genital tubercles can be visualized on a high-resolution ultrasound monitor. Male and female genital tubercles appear bilobed on the monitor; each lobe is in the shape of an oval, which aids in differentiation from surrounding structures.

11. What is another term for the lowest lateral regions of the abdomen, near the groin?
a) Gubernaculum
b) Rumen
c) Abomasum
d) Inguinal
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: In human anatomy, the inguinal region refers to either the groin or the lower lateral regions of the abdomen. It may also refer to as a conjoint tendon, previously known as the inguinal aponeurotic falx, a structure formed from the transversus abdominis insertion into the pecten pubis.

12. How many days after breeding can a pregnancy be detected by ultrasound?
a) Between 28 to 30 days
b) Before 14 days
c) Between 14 and 28 days
d) Between 30 and 55 days
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: After breeding pregnancy takes place. The pregnancy can be detected by ultrasound 28-30 days after the breeding.

13. At how many days can pregnancy be detected by palpation?
a) Before 14 days
b) Between 14 and 40 days
c) Between 40 to 50 days
d) Between 50 and 95 days
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The main advantage of scanning is that it can give an accurate diagnosis earlier than rectal palpation. Pregnancy can be detected earlier with ultrasound compared with rectal palpation. 10 to 16% of cows diagnosed pregnant at 40-50 days.
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14. What structural carbohydrate component makes older plants less digestible than younger plants?
a) Lignin
b) Cellulose
c) Fructrose
d) Sucrose
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Lignin composition and p-coumaric acid in the wall are less likely to affect digestibility. Voluntary intake of forages is a critical determinant of animal performance and cell-wall concentration is negatively related to intake of ruminants consuming high-forage diets.

15. On average, how many weeks after freshening does a cow’s dry matter intake peak?
a) 1-2 weeks
b) 2-4 weeks
c) 12-14 weeks
d) 40-42 weeks
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Cows freshen after a calf’s birth. Freshening occurs when milk production begins. She’s then a “wet” cow, as opposed to “dry,” non-milk-producing animal. Bout 12-14 weeks after freshening does a cow’s dry matter intake peak.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn