This set of Tricky Dairy Engineering Questions and Answers focuses on “Diseases and Deficiency – 2”.
1. What does GnRH stand for?
a) Gestation Repression Hormone
b) Genotype Reflection Hormone
c) Goonie Resusitation Hoovermobile
d) Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
Explanation: GnRH is Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone. GnRH is the harmone which stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins—luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)—by the anterior pituitary gland.
2. What is the average duration of standing heat in cattle?
a) 4 hours
b) 12 hours
c) 70 hours
d) 8 hours
Explanation: The average duration of standing heat is 15 to 18 hours, but heat duration may vary from 8 to 30 hours among cows. An estrous cow usually stands to be mounted 20 to 55 times during her estrous period. Each mount lasts three to seven seconds.
3. What is the approximate time of ovulation in cattle after the beginning of heat?
a) 60 hours
b) 90 hours
c) 30 hours
d) 3 hours
Explanation: Traditionally, the cow that stands still and allows others to mount her is in “standing heat.” Standing is the primary sign of estrus. Ovulation occurs at approximately 24 to 32 hours after the onset of standing estrus in dairy cows.
4. What hormone is responsible for maintaining pregnancy?
Explanation: This group of hormones is responsible for the development of the female sexual characteristics. Usually formed in the ovaries, estrogen is also made by the placenta during pregnancy to help maintain a healthy pregnancy. Progesterone hormone is made by the ovaries and by the placenta during pregnancy.
5. What is the scientific term for birth?
Explanation: Parturition, also called birth or childbirth, process of bringing forth a child from the uterus, or womb. The prior development of the child in the uterus is described in the article human embryology. The process and series of changes which take place in a woman’s organs and tissues as a result of the developing fetus are discussed in the article pregnancy.
6. In reference to reproduction, what does CL stand for?
a) Cattle Lutalysis
b) Cervix Lymphocyte
c) Compound Luteum
d) Corpus Luteum
Explanation: The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure involved in ovulation and early pregnancy. During ovulation, the primary follicle leads to formation of the secondary follicle and subsequently the mature vesicular follicle. At ovulation the follicle ruptures expelling the ovum into the fallopian tube.
7. To the hundredth, how many pounds of milk are in one gallon?
a) 8.52 pounds
b) 8.72 pounds
c) 8.92 pounds
d) 8.62 pounds
Explanation: This is because a gallon of milk weighs about 8.6 pounds, give or take, based upon whether it is whole milk (heavier) or skim (lighter). But for our purposes, the 8.6 and 11.63 are accurate enough.
8. What pathway in young calves directs milk into the abomasum, bypassing the rumen, reticulum, and omasum?
a) Rumen bypass groove
b) Masticulas passinomis
c) Esophageal groove
d) Rumen passinomis
Explanation: The esophageal groove is a curved muscle that lies in the throat of the calf. When a calf drinks water from a trough or eats meal and grains, the esophageal groove stays curved to direct these foods to the rumen for digestion. It is also a pathway in young cows to direct milk into the abomasums.
9. Milk fever is also (scientifically) known as what?
a) Postpartum paresis
c) Masticular Paresis
d) Parturient paresis
Explanation: Milk fever, postparturient hypocalcemia, or parturient paresis is a disease, primarily in dairy cattle, but also seen in beef cattle, characterized by reduced blood calcium levels.
10. What is Parturient paresis caused by?
a) Low blood levels of ionized calcium
b) Low blood levels of ionized sodium
c) Low blood levels of ionized zinc
d) Low blood levels of ionized vitamin-D
Explanation: Parturient paresis, also called milk fever, in cattle, a disorder characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia). It occurs in cows most commonly within three days after they have calved, at a time when the cow’s production of milk has put a severe strain on its calcium stores.
11. According to the NRC, what percent calcium should a dry cow ration contain?
a) 1 percent
b) 2 percent
c) 10 percent
d) 39 percent
Explanation: The required dietary energy concentration is a function of the energy requirement and the feed intake rate. The cow ration should contain about 39 percent of calcium.
12. High potassium intake will decrease a cows ability to mobilize what?
a) Bone phosphorus
c) Bone calcium
Explanation: Having a diet with too much potassium in the weeks before calving can make the cows weak and make them downer cows. It can make them susceptible to milk fever, hence affecting the ability to mobilize bone calcium. The critical time is 4-6 weeks before calving.
13. Cows that are at risk of developing ketosis can be fed what vitamin to help prevent ketosis?
Explanation: Another supplement that might be useful to people who consume the ketogenic diet is Niacin. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble nutrient that also functions as a hormone in the body.
14. Hairy Heel Wart is scientifically known as what?
a) Digital Divide
b) Digital Dermatitis
c) Intraheel laminitis
d) Digital phlegmon
Explanation: Bovine digital dermatitis is an infectious condition of the foot caused by bacteria called Treponemes. Infections typically result in ulcers and/or warts.
15. Foot Rot is scientifically known as what?
a) Intraheel laminitis
b) Digital Dermatitis
c) Interdigital phlegmon
Explanation: Footrot is a subacute or acute necrotic infection that originates in the interdigital skin, leading to cellulitis in the digital region.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Dairy Engineering.
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