This set of Basic Dairy Engineering Questions and Answers focuses on “Cattle Health – 4”.
1. What is the accepted standard length for a lactation record for dairy cattle?
a) 200 days
b) 305 days
c) 365 days
d) 100 days
Explanation: The standard period of 305 days has been chosen because this is approximately the normal lactation length of cows calving at intervals of 12 months. In tropical cattle, restricting the lactation records to 305 days would have less effect, as few cow’s milk for more than 305 days.
2. What can heart girth measurements of cows be used to estimate?
b) Milk production
c) Calving date
d) Body weight
Explanation: Circumference of a chest (heart girth) has been found to be the measurement most closely correlated with weight. The Dairy Cattle Research Branch2 of the U.S.D.A. reported a table of heart girth weight equivalents from which a measuring tape was prepared. This tape has been used extensively for more than 20 years in connection with D.H.I.A. work and for the estimation of body weight in dairy cattle generally.
3. In regards to pedigrees, what is an RHA?
a) Rolling Herd Average
b) Registered Herd Ancestry
c) Registered Holstein Ancestry
d) Registered Herd Average
Explanation: RHA is Registered Holstein Ancestry. Each animal in the herd book has a calculated, recorded and reported percentage “Registered Holstein Ancestry” or “RHA.”
4. Milk should be below what temperature before it is transferred to a milk truck?
a) 60 degrees F
b) 20 degrees F
c) 30 degrees F
d) 40 degrees F
Explanation: A certain temperature has to be met before the milk can be transferred to a milk truck. The milk should have at least attained the temperature of 40 degrees F before being transferred to a milk truck.
5. When referring to milk test used at the processing plant, what is a DMC?
a) Direct Microscopic Smear test
b) Direct Microscopic Somatic test
c) Direct Micro Susceptibility test
d) Direct Measurement Control
Explanation: Direct Microscopic Clump Count (DMCC) for bacteria is not considered an official test for bacteria counts, it is used throughout the dairy industry to estimate bacteria colony forming units (i.e., “clumps”) in raw milk samples taken from the farm, the tank truck or the plant storage facility.
6. How much water can a lactating cow consume in one day?
a) 5 gallons
b) 15 gallons
c) 35 gallons
d) 25 gallons
Explanation: A milking dairy cow drinks about 25 gallons of water each day. During periods of heat stress water intake may double.
7. What percent of milk is water?
a) 82 percent
b) 87 percent
c) 93 percent
d) 50 percent
Explanation: Whole milk, as defined by the Milk Act, which regulates milk content, contains at least 3.25 percent milk fat. It also contains at least 8.25 percent protein, sugar (or carbohydrates) and vitamins and minerals. Otherwise, whole milk is made up of water-about 87 percent.
8. What units are used to measure energy?
Explanation: Calories are units of energy. Various definitions exist but fall into two broad categories. Gram calorie is defined as the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius at a pressure of one atmosphere.
9. What ration ingredients contain the highest concentration of energy?
Explanation: all the ration ingredients provide energy. However, in the above mentioned option fat provides the highest concentration of energy.
10. When evaluation dairy rations what do the letters NE stand for?
a) Net Equivalence
b) Not Essential
c) Not Edible
d) Net Energy
Explanation: Energy results from the digestion of carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Net Energy Lactation (NEl) is the feed energy available for maintenance and milk production after digestive and metabolic losses.
11. When evaluating a dairy ration, what do the letters TDN stand for?
a) Total Diet Needed
b) Tested Digestible Nutrients
c) Total Digestible Nutrients
d) The Dairy Network
Explanation: Total digestible nutrients (TDN) are another method of expressing the energy content of feeds or the energy requirements of cattle. TDN is comparable to digestible energy. It has been in use longer than the net energy system and more values are available for feedstuffs.
12. What percent of dry matter in plants is made of carbohydrates?
a) 50 percent
b) 65 percent
c) 75 percent
d) 85 percent
Explanation: The dry matter of plant and animal material would be its solids, i.e. all its constituents excluding water. The dry matter of food would include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Carbohydrates constitute about 75% of dry matter of plants.
13. Where are structural carbohydrates found in the plant?
a) In the cell wall
b) In the cell nucleus
c) In the cell organelles
d) In the cell membrane
Explanation: Polysaccharides are the most abundant carbohydrates. A polysaccharide molecule can contain thousands of glucose units. These highly complex carbohydrates include starches, cellulose, and glycogen. Starch is the usual form in which carbohydrates are stored as energy by plants in the cell wall.
14. What are structural carbohydrates made of?
a) Cellulose, fructose, and saccharin
b) Lignin, sucrose, and cellulose
c) Cellulose, hemicellulose, lactose
d) Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin
Explanation: Structural carbohydrates constitute of Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.
15. What kinds of relationship do cattle and the microorganisms in their rumen share?
Explanation: The relationship between cows and their gut microorganisms is mutualistic. This relationship can also be called symbiotic.
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