This set of Dairy Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Diseases and Deficiency – 1”.
1. What does NSC stand for?
a) Nonstructural Carbons
b) Nitrogen Standard Calculation
c) Nonstructural Carbohydrates
d) Nitrogen Substitute Calories
Explanation: NSC is Nonstructural Carbohydrate. Generally, feedstuff that is high in fiber is low in nonstructural carbohydrates and low in energy. For example, grass hay is high fiber and low in nonstructural carbohydrates and energy.
2. What do nonstructural carbohydrates consist of?
b) Plant proteins, pectin, and sugar
c) Plant sugars
d) Plant starch, pectin, and sugar
Explanation: Carbohydrates can be divided into two general categories: nonstructural and structural carbohydrates. Starches, pectin and sugars are known as nonstructural carbohydrates and are digested by enzymes and absorbed in the foregut.
3. What acid is formed when nonstructural carbohydrates are digested in the rumen?
a) Lactic acid
b) Citric acid
c) Propyl-hydro chloride
d) Propionic acid
Explanation: Starches and sugars are known as nonstructural carbohydrates and are digested by enzymes and absorbed in the foregut. They form Propionic acid when digested in the rumen.
4. What fat-soluble vitamins do fats provide?
a) Vitamins A, D, E, and K
b) Vitamins A, B, E, and K
c) Vitamins A, C, E, and K
d) Vitamins A, C, D, E, and K
Explanation: The fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K, are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity when consumed in excess than water-soluble vitamins. Eating a normal, well-balanced diet will not lead to toxicity in otherwise healthy individuals.
5. How much more energy do fats contain per unit than carbohydrates and proteins?
Explanation: Fats require more oxidation to become CO2 and H2O than do carbohydrates. Generally, fats provide about 9 kilocalories per gram and carbohydrates provide about 4 kilocalories per gram.
6. Which cows have higher protein requirements?
a) High-producing and open cows
b) Low-producing and pregnant cows
c) High-producing and pregnant cows
d) Low-producing and open cows
Explanation: Ruminants need a daily supply of all nutrients required for maintenance and production: milk, meat, growth and pregnancy. Quantitatively any of the types of a nutrient can limit performance levels, but the most likely to be in short supply are energy and protein; this is especially true for high and average yielding cows.
7. Where are degradable proteins broken down?
Explanation: Degradable Protein (RDP) is the fraction of Crude Protein (CP) consumed which is broken down by rumen microbes. A much simpler bench top was proposed in which feed samples are incubated with a mixture of protein- degrading enzymes extracted from the rumen.
8. Where are undegradable proteins absorbed?
a) Large intestine
c) Small Intestine
Explanation: Undegradable protein (RUP) is defined as that portion of dietary protein that escapes degradation by ruminal microorganisms and is passed into the small intestine for digestion and absorption. Metabolizable protein (MP) is defined as the true protein absorbed in the small intestine.
9. What is the average mature weight for a Jersey cow?
a) 1000 lb
b) 1400 lb
c) 800 lb
d) 500 lb
Explanation: The average mature size for Jerseys is approximately 1,000 pounds and the range in weight and height of mature Jersey cows is narrower compared to ranges described for larger dairy breeds.
10. If there are large numbers of flies around the dairy barn, what should be the first thing to be examined in an attempt to solve the fly problem?
a) Cow feeding procedures
b) Milking procedures
c) Manure handling procedures
d) Calf feeding procedures
Explanation: Fly problems are quite common in dairy farms. In order to handle such problems, the first step is to check into the manure handling procedures.
11. When referring to rations, what do the letters NFC stand for?
a) Not for Consumption
b) Non-fungus Community
c) National Football Camp
d) Nonforage Carbohydrates
Explanation: Some laboratories distinguish between NFC (non-fiber carbohydrate) and NSC (nonstructural carbohydrate). They define NFC by the above equation [100-(%NDF + %CP + %Fat + Ash)]. They define NSC as only the starches and sugars in the feed or forage. Starches and sugars can be determined directly by enzymatic analysis.
12. Where is the National Cheese Exchange Located?
a) Chicago, Illinois
b) Green Bay, Wisconsin
c) Madison Wisconsin
d) Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Explanation: The National Cheese Exchange (NCE) was a private non-profit corporation that operated in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Each Friday morning for one-half hour, members of the NCE met to buy or sell cheddar cheese in 40-pound blocks and 500-pound barrels on the exchange.
13. In a cow, where would you find an alveolus?
Explanation: The interior of each quarter of the udder is composed of a teat cistern, a gland cistern, milk ducts, and glandular tissue. The glandular tissue placed deep within the udder contains millions of microscopic sacs called alveoli; each alveolus is lined with milk-producing epithelial cells.
14. When discussing lactation records, what does the term “fat corrected milk” mean?
a) Fat has been added to the milk to the correct level
b) Fat has been extracted from the milk to the correct level
c) Lactation records are being adjusted to the same milk fat percentage
d) The lactation record have an average amount of milk fat
Explanation: Fat-corrected milk (FCM) is a means of adjusting the milk yield for the amount of fat in the milk to reflect the relative energy concentration in the milk, thus it reflects the amount of energy required to produce the given amount of milk. It means Lactation records have been adjusted to the same milk fat percentage.
15. What percent non-fiber carbohydrate should a ration contain for high producing cows?
a) 35 to 40 percent
b) 10 to 20 percent
c) 56 to 61 percent
d) 22 to 27 percent
Explanation: Non fiber carbohydrate is an important component of the cow’s milk. 35-40%non fiber carbohydrate should be present in the ration of a high producing cow.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Dairy Engineering.
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