Cell Biology Questions and Answers – Chemical Basis of Life – Proteins

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This set of Cell Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Chemical Basis of Life – Proteins”.

1. In an amino acid, the carboxyl group and amino group are separated from each other by a single ____________ atom.
a) nitrogen
b) sulphur
c) hydrogen
d) carbon
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Proteins are polymers containing amino acids as monomers. There are twenty different types of amino acids, with varying functional groups. Every amino acid has a carboxyl group and an amino group separated by a single carbon atom between them.
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2. Amino acids used in the synthesis of proteins on a ribosome are ________________
a) D-amino acids
b) Mutated amino acids
c) L-amino acids
d) Fluorescing amino acids
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Explanation: In most organisms including humans, the L amino acid is used to make up proteins. In some microorganisms D types are used. The conversion of D to L can take place in our body using an enzyme called racemase.

3. What protein makes up spider silk?
a) Keratin
b) Fibrin
c) Collagen
d) Elastin
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Spider silk is a collagen molecule made up of 3 alpha helices wound together in a triple helix format. It is rich in hydrophobic residues as well as glycine and proline to incorporate a flexible nature to it. Collagen is also found in our bones and tendons.
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4. Microorganisms use D-amino acids.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Unlike animals, microorganism use D-amino acids in the synthesis of certain small peptides, including those present in cell walls and several antibiotics.

5. Which bonds are present in two neighboring amino acids?
a) Glycosidic bonds
b) Polypeptide bonds
c) Amide bonds
d) Hydrogen bonds
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Peptide bonds are present between two consecutive amino acids. Carboxyl group of one amino acid is bonded to the amino group of neighboring amino acid, by the elimination of water.
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6. The longest known polypeptide is of the muscle protein called __________
a) chitin
b) myoglobin
c) titin
d) papain
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: An average polypeptide chain consists of about 450 amino acids. The longest known polypeptide chain is found in the muscle protein called titin, consisting of over 30,000 amino acids.

7. Which of the following amino acids does not belong to polar charged group?
a) Serine
b) Aspartic acid
c) Lysine
d) Arginine
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Serine belongs to the category of polar uncharged amino acids whereas aspartic acid, lysine, glutamic acid and arginine belong to polar charged amino acids. These are fully charged at physiological pH and their side chains contain strong organic acids and bases.
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8. Histidine is a polar uncharged amino acid.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Histidine is considered a polar charged amino acid although it is not fully charged at physiological pH. The ability of Histidine to gain or lose a proton in physiological pH ranges, it is an important residue in active sites of many proteins.

9. Which residues are present in histone proteins?
a) Lysine & proline
b) Glutamic acid & aspartic acid
c) Arginine & Histidine
d) Serine & Cysteine
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: DNA is a negatively charged molecule that wounds around histone proteins. They are rich in both arginine and histidine residues (both are positively charged Amino acids) which helps the negatively charged DNA bind to it. This forms a strong ionic bond formation allowing the DNA to be tightly packed into chromosomes.
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10. Which of the following groups of amino acids are least soluble in water?
a) Polar
b) Non-polar
c) Polar charged
d) Polar uncharged
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Non-polar amino acids have side chains that are essentially hydrocarbons(sulphur in case of methionine and cysteine). This causes the amino acid water interaction to be weak and thus are sparsely soluble in water. The amino acids included in this category are alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine and methionine. Phenylalanine is least soluble due to its bulky aromatic side chain.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter