This set of Cell Biology Questions and Answers for Entrance exams focuses on “Genome Sequencing”.
1. “Dark matter” is the region of the chromosome that constitutes highly repeated sequences.
Explanation: Dark matter refers to the region of chromosomes, especially in and around the centromeres of each chromosome. It consists of long stretches of highly repeating DNA sequences.
2. The process by which a single gene can code for multiple proteins is called ___________
c) alternative splicing
Explanation: A very small proportion of the whole genome of humans actually codes for proteins. To create a vast array of diversified proteins, one gene can code for multiple proteins by the process by alternative splicing.
3. Systems biology is the study of Biological systems in humans.
Explanation: Systems biology is the study of biological systems and its interactions. This field however is not limited to humans only. It includes all biological living forms.
4. Intergenic and intronic DNA are essentially same.
Explanation: Only about 1.5 percent of the total DNA codes for polypeptides (proteins). Intergenic DNA refers to the DNA that resides between the genes while intronic DNA is the DNA that comprises introns, the non-coding DNA.
5. Some of the fastest evolving genes encode for proteins involved in _________________________
a) regulation of gene expression
b) reproducing ability
d) prevention of infection
Explanation: Some of the fastest evolving genes are the ones that encode for the regulation of gene expression, the transcription factors.
6. Which of the following regions is involved in the development of brain?
Explanation: The Human accelerated region (HAR) is the region of the genome that comprises of genes primarily involved in the development of fetal brain.
7. The AMY1 gene encodes for __________
Explanation: The AMY1 gene encodes for starch-digesting enzyme amylase. On comparison of human and chimpanzee genome, it was discovered that the former contains only 1 copy of AMY1 gene while the latter consists many copies of it in the saliva.
8. The FOXP2 gene is responsible for _________________
Explanation: The FOXP2 gene is responsible for speech and is believed to have played a role in human evolution and diversification from chimpanzee.
9. Sites in the genome that are different among individuals are referred to as __________________
c) genetic polymorphisms
Explanation: No two individuals have the same DNA sequence throughout the genome. The sites where this diversity arises, where the genome varies amongst individuals is known as genetic polymorphisms.
10. Which of the following blocks of DNA have a low frequency of recombination?
Explanation: Haplotypes are the blocks of DNA that have a very low frequency of recombination. Consequently, they remain intact during transmission from one generation to the next.
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