This set of Tough Cell Biology Questions and Answers focuses on “Cytoskeleton – Cilia”.
1. Which microtubule-associated motor protein is responsible for the movement of cilia?
Explanation: Dynein was the first cytoplasmic motor protein, associated with the microtubules, to be discovered in 1963 as the protein responsible for the movement of cilia and flagella.
2. How many cytoplasmic dyneins are present in eukaryotic cells?
Explanation: Eukaryotic cells have many different types of kinesins and myosins, whereas there are only two types of cytoplasmic dyneins present. Out of which one is responsible for most of the transport activities that take place inside the cell.
3. Colcemid is a drug that acts on ___________
Explanation: Colcemid is a drug that binds to tubulin subunits and prevents their use by the cell. It is closely related to natural alkaloid colchicine.
4. Outer microtubules in a cilium are generated from ______________
a) basal body
Explanation: The outer microtubules in cilia are generated from the microtubules called a basal body. The basal body resides at the base of the cilium and these are identical to centrioles.
5. Microtubules of cilia are stable.
Explanation: Depending upon the cell type, microtubules can have a range of stability levels. Microtubules of mitotic spindle and cytoskeleton are labile whereas microtubules of cilia and flagella are stable.
6. Cilia and flagella are the same structure.
Explanation: Cilia and flagella are essentially the same motile structures that project from surface of many cells. Depending upon the cell type and pattern of movement, the term cilia or flagella maybe used.
7. Non-motile cilia are called _________________
a) primary cilium
Explanation: Not all cilia are motile, non-motile cilia, called the primary cilium to play a sensory role and monitor the properties of extracellular fluids.
8. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is caused due to mutations in genes that affect the assembly of _____________
Explanation: Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is caused due to mutations in genes that affect the assembly of cilia and basal bodies. As result patients suffer with a range of abnormalities.
9. Ciliopathies were first identified in model organisms _________________
a) C. elegans
c) Mus musculus
d) Arabidopsis thaliana
Explanation: Cilia and basal bodies have an important role in organ development and function. Many of the genes responsible for ciliopathies (cilia-based disorders) were first identified in model organisms C.elegans and Chlamydomonas.
10. The core of the cilium is called ________________
b) primary cilium
Explanation: The core of the cilium is called axoneme, it contains an array of longitudinally running microtubules. It usually consists of nine peripheral doublet microtubules surrounding a central pair of single microtubules.
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